Can juvenile arthritis in children cause CKD in adulthood?

No. You need to look for another cause of your chronic kidney disease (I'm going to assume that is what CKD means). Remember that nowadays, with the fad for subscientific estimates of renal function, many athletic men are overdiagnosed just because their muscles produce extra creatinine. Painkillers for JRA can also impair kidney function, usually reversibly. Insist on a real diagnosis. Best wishes.
Several types . Of juvenile arthritis can occur. If the diagnosis was systemic the complications could affect the kidney. Also chronic use of NSAIDs and other meds could play a role in kidney problems. Follow with your PCP to be sure.