Do some causes cause a more rapid progression of parkinson's?

Generally yes. The rate of progression in parkinson's disease varies among patients. Currently, however there is no good way to distinguish between rapid and slow progressers. In one study, 25% of patients were seriously disabled or dead 5 yrs after onset. This number increased to 80% at 10 to 14 yrs. A few patients were found to have limited diability at 20 years, but this was not typical.
Natural progression. Parkinsons disease (pd) is a progressive disorder but progress may be either rapid or slow. A variety of actors affect disease progression but probably most important is whatever the genetic mechanism is causing the illness. Disease progression speed is often evident from the outset of the symptomatic phase but not always so.