Could vomiting cause salivary glands infection?

Not likely. Continuous vomiting and binging (e.g. Bulimia) can result in enlarged salivary glands, but not infection.
Irritation. Would be more likely than infection from a brief encounter with highly acidic stomach contents.

Related Questions

What can cause an infection in the salivary gland other than a stone?

Spit gland infection. Any obstruction from stone to adhesions/scar to tumor to trauma. Also positive oral air pressure can blow bacteria from the mouth into the system. And very commonly dehydration or poor salivary flow from medications, radiation exposure, auto-immune diseases, and diet/life style. Read more...

Which infections can cause swollen salivary glands? Can HIV cause this? How about helicobacter?

Mumps. Unless y o u are vaccinated against, mumps or viral parotitis is an infection that targets mostly the large salivary glands like the parotid gland. Neither HIV nor Helicobacter specifically infect salivary glands. Read more...