Same as heterosex. Hiv is transmitted by the virus present in body secretions deposited onto areas of either mucous membranes (rectal mucosa, oral mucosa or tonsils) where there are receptor sites to which the virus attaches. There are some forms of sexual activity in which individuals are more prone to bleeding, in which case these bleeding sites present a rapid route for viral entry.
Sharing body fluids. Hiv is a sexually transmitted infection. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. It can take years before HIV weakens the immune system to the point that the patient has aids. There is no cure for hiv/aids, but there are medications that can dramatically slow the progression of the disease.
Blood. Tainted blood transfusions are the easiest way to become infected with hiv. In the developed world, all blood is screened for HIV and blood transfusions are safe. Other high risk activities include sharing needles for intravenous drug use with infected individuals and having unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV infected person.
Cellular immunity. These are cells that work as part of the cellular immune system, fighting certain fungal (e.g. Cryptococcus), viral (e.g. Herpesviruses), parastic (e.g. Toxoplasma), and bacterial (e.g. Tuberulosis) infections. The cellular immune system also helps to prevent certain cancers, such as lymphomas.
No. Hiv is not transmissible by sharing food or utensils. Hiv is spread by directly sharing body fluids such as semen or blood. This most commonly happens during sexual intercourse and / or with needle sharing. Always use a condom and spermicidal lubricant with sex and never re-use a needle that has been used by another person. Be safe.
No. You can get HIV from blood or bodily fluid transfusions or organ transplant or sexually intercourse. Casual contact such as food sharing or light touch or kiss has not lead to HIV transmission.
Evolution. It came from a simian precursor transmitted to humans by one of several mechanisms. This virus mutates continuously and the form to which it mutates which is best capable of surviving under the circumstances is the one which will be reproduced and multiply within infected cells. Unless of course you are a creationist.
Probably not. The virus itself probably hasn't evolved much. What has evolved is our ability to treat it. Resistance mutations occur, but this sort of evolution affects individuals and sometimes the people they infect. It has not resulted in global evoluation of the virus.
HIV infection. I am unsure what you are really asking so if I missed it please rephrase the question. There are two ways to test for HIV infection. One, the most common test, looks for antibodies produced by the infected human's immune system. Antibodies can take up to six months to be detectable after an infection...So a long time to wait to get an accurate answer. Then there is the viral dna or RNA test.
HIV testing. There are several HIV tests. We usually check what is called an elisa blood/oral test. It's very sensitive & specific but misses early, early infection (<15-20 days). In us we confirm a + elisa w/a test called a western blot (looks for HIV specific proteins). Other countries just use elisa x2. For acute HIV infection we measure viral RNA in blood. Can be falsely + so needs expert evaluation.
Get tested. The only way to know if you have HIV is to get tested for hiv. Please visit with a clinic or doctor and have testing performed. The clinic or doctor will explain the results and be able to answer questions. To decrease risk, always use clean (single use) needles for injection drugs and always have 'safe' sex with a condom and spermicidal lubricant. Be well.
HIV. Hiv can be transmitted via anal ; oral sex, blood transfusion, use of contaminated needles, breastfeeding ; during pregnancy ; delivery. Do you engage in behaviors that put you at risk?