Do you need a Foley catheter for outpatient surgery?

Depends. Often not, but it would depend on the type of surgery that you are having, and if the urinary bladder needed to be empty during surgery, or if the surgery may be a longer procedure. Ask your surgeon before the surgery.
Depends. For some cases yes and this is most often dependent on the length of time the case will be and type of anesthesia chosen. Speak to both your surgeon and your anesthesiologist before surgery so you have a better picture of your postoperative expectations.
Foley rarely. Outpatient surgery rarely needs a foley catheter in your bladder. Doctors try to use these very rarely. Simply go to the bathroom before the procedure.