Does the flu affect children and the elderly more severely?

Yes. The very young have less developed lungs and a more active immune system, causing more inflammation and damage. The elderly have more scarred and damaged lungs, plus likely heart issues, and a less effective immune system, enabling an infection to cause more damage.
Yes. The very young and the very old are more vulnerable to both illness ( ? Less efficient immune system) and the impact of illnesses such as the flu. In addition the elderly often have chronic conditions and are taking medication that complicates the picture even more. So more caution and careful attention when they are unwell is tantamount.

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