Do STDs effect men similarly to women?

No. The male reproductive organs are external and there is no connection from the exterior of the body to the inside such as is provided by the female cervix which literally provides an access point for infection to ascend into the peritoneal cavity, the inside of the abdomen. Infection there can potentially cause much more damage.
Gals: stealth germs. In women, stds can act sneaky like stealth planes. They can fly under the radar. Like chlamydia, for example. We may not notice any symptoms at all until we find out that we are sterile.