Can you define vascular sclerosis and venous dilation and tortuosity on fundus exam? What does that actually mean?

Vascular retinopathy. Vascular sclerosis (or hardening of the retinal blood vessels), mostly in the arterioles, are associated with chronic effects of hypertension. Venous dilation and tortuousity, mean that the veins are dilated and more tortuous than normal. These changes are associated with slower drainage of blood flow out of the eye, and may signify impending vein occlusion. Requires retina specialist follow-up.
Hi blood pressure. Retinal vascular changes such as you've described, likely resemble changes secondary to high blood pressure. Vascular sclerosis indicates that the arterioles are hardened and appear brighter on exam. The vascular tortuously is due to distension of the venules in the eye, usually at the level of the optic nerve. The thicker ; harder arterioles compress the more distensible venules. Need BP treated.