Would occlusal adjustment lead to cavities developing?

Usually not. If done properly, on a patient with normal to good oral hygiene, mild/light occlusal adjustment will not lead to increase development of cavities. Heavy occlusal adjustments, that expose the underlying dentin, should not be done as they will increase risk of tooth decay.
Maybe. Maybe of during occlusal adjustment, the softer dentin was exposed. Dentin would be more prone to decay that enamel.
Possibly. Hopefully the adjustment is conservative without removing much enamel. If too much of the tooth is ground down, then the tooth may be more susceptible to decay. Make sure you keep teeth super clean. Fluoride rinses/gels may help.

Related Questions

Will occlusal adjustment lead to cavities?

Not usually. Typically the amount of enamel removed is small and dentists are careful to leave enough enamel on tooth for protection. If a significant amount needs to be removed, you may ba a candidate for crown(s) discuss you concerns with your dentist. Read more...
Should not. If done conservatively and if properly maintained by the patient (brushing/flossing) then it should not. Hopefully it is only in enamel and not into the dentinl so that the enamel stays intact. Read more...