Diabetic? Get yourself a good internist and stay close by. You'll need on going care. I wish you well.
Heart and protein. You need to see both a cardiologist (c) and a nephrologist (n). An echocardiogram should be ordered and any hypertension, either essential or pulmonary, need to be treated, if present. A n can get a 24 hour urine to see the quantity of urine in it and can assess you for the cause of it, say diabetes or glomeruloneprhritis, among other causes. You should see a n and c as soon as possible.
Symptoms. You should discuss with your doctor your situation. The cause (s) of the heart and renal abnormalities will dictate the treatment and the prognosis. The options will be part of your consultation and you should be sure you get a description and discussion of your problems and options.
Do pleural effusion, enlarged heart, abnormal looking lungs, kidney lesion (def not kidney infect) & esophagus "grit" have anything in common?
Complex problem. Certainly, CHF can lead to repercussions to the other organ systems you mentioned. Unfortunately, this format is not capable of diagnosing and explaining all that may be going on. I would start by seeing a cardiologist.