What kind of vitamins or food should I take to prevent, retina detachment nd cataracts or what the doctors recommend to prevent all of that?

There are no . Vitamins to prevent cataract or retinal detachment. But there are some to keep the eyes otherwise healthy; the antioxidants, the omegas and other minerals important for retinal health, all are found in every day vitamins today.
Vitamins. There are no vitamins or foods that are proven to prevent either of those conditions. Routine exams by an ophthalmologist are the tool for preventive eye care.
Yes: vitamins . It's ok to take vitamins before surgery. [N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) drops in small studies showed improve vision in cataract patients. However, it has not been studied in double blind, randomized, prospective way & studies were paid for by company who has vested interest. It is not FDA approved.] Sun protection & eating a diet rich in antioxidants best for eyes; info: [email protected]