I got white patches on my tongue and its sometimes the back of my throat hurys when I sneeze. Doct examines me he said its inflamed taste buds help?

Patches on tongue. Inflamed taste buds (papillitis) is a common symptom of some viral upper respiratory symptoms; it causes mild redness, swelling, and discomfort with altered taste in the taste buds. It will go away in a few days without treatment. Other causes of white patches on the tongue are yeast (more painful than papillitis) and "geographic" tongue, which is a painless allergic symptom , can be chronic.
What are you eating? Is there something that you are eating that is causing the inflammation? It is good you had a doctor look at it. Make sure you do an inexpensive oral cancer screen.