Is it possible that newborn jaundice cause longterm medical problems as they get older?

Unlikely an issue. About 1/3 of newborns have neonatal jaundice to some degree, peaking around day 4 and gradually declining. Some have jaundice enough to require phototherapy (lights) and rarely some require transfusions. As long as they receive proper therapy if needed, there is rarely if ever any long term effect on the kid or adult.
Possible but rare. Severe jaundice, especially unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, can lead to brain damage known as kern icterus. Extreme premies, however, can do so even at much lower level.

Related Questions

Can newborn jaundice cause longterm medical problems?

Possibly. Mild jaundice is very common in newborns, especially breast-fed babies. Jaundice is caused by bilirubin, a breakdown product of hemoglobin. If the bilirubin level gets too high, it can lead to kernicterus, a rare neurological condition that can lead to permanent brain damage. Most hospitals monitor the bilirubin level in newborns in the nursery. Read more...
Rarely. Most jaundice is a passing variation of normal metabolic change.Many hospitals use passive methods to monitor the condition and test blood if there appears to be a problem.If a problem is recognized and treated in its early stages any problem is treatable with good long term outcome. If overlooked, the results can produce long term impairment. Read more...