Can vascular conditions cause kidney damage?

Yes. A blockage in the artery that supplies blood to a kidney can diminish the kidney until it is irreversibly damaged. Hypertension and diabetes when out of control can accelerate vascular disease and kidney damage.
Yes. Blood vessels that impair both large and small arteries feeding the kidneys can cause release of hormones that raise the blood pressure, which over time, can trigger primary kidney tissue damage and impaired kidney function. These vascular diseases can be acquired like atherosclerosis or with diabetes, but some heritable or arterial muscular growth problems can damage the kidneys or raise the bp.