How would an orthopedic doctor go about healing a broken ankle?

Same principles. Any good doctor would use the same principles: proper examination and radiographic studies to determine the location and extent of the fracture(s). Some ankle fracture require orif (open reduction internal fixation) and ligament repair. Others may simply be immobilized with or without anatomical alignment. The body does the rest with proper nutrition.
Depends. There are many different treatment options for a fractured ankle ranging from nonoperative to operative. The treatment depends on the type and stability of the fracture. See an orthopedist for a recommendation.
Depends on Xray. This depends on your x-ray and type of ankle fracture. Unstable ankle fractures are usually treated surgically and stable ankle fractures treated with various methods ... Cast, cam walkers.
Ankle fracture. Not sure since I am a podiatrist. Xrays would determine whether i treat this surgically or conservatively but at least 6 weeks of casting would be a minimum.
Several ways. The fracture would need to be evaluated and then either immobilized or surgically repaired after x-ray and clinical evaluation.
Depends on break. Ankle comprised of two bones forming joint; tibia and fibula. Any injury breaking both bones necessitates surgery to restore ankle joint and insure healing of bones in proper orientation. Fractures involving only one bone may sometimes be managed in cast if minimally displaced and integrity of ankle joint not compromised.