How long does it take for chlamydia infections to cause infertility in women?

Not always. One episode of this infection, diagnosed and treated early is not likely to cause infertility.
Variable. All chlamydia infections, male or female, should be treated immediately with antibiotics. Some women may harbor chlamydia in the cervix and pass it on to their partners without the bacteria causing infertility. Alternatively, some women may have the infection for only one day before it infects, scars and permanently blocks the fallopian tubes.

Related Questions

Do women usually have successful pregnancies after a chlamydia infection or do you always become infertile if not treated for a long time?

SOME DO. Chlamydia may enter the female genital tract and cause injury & scaring to the sensitive fallopian tubes or worse. If an infection is detected prior to damage & treated effectively, the problems can be minimized and natural pregnancy can occur. With todays tech a willing couple can harvest eggs, fertalize & implant embryos, bypassing the tubes. Expensive but possible.

Is it possible to have had PID caused by a past unknown/untreated chlamydia infection but not know you had pid?

Yes. It can be quite common for women to have evidence of past pid without ever having had symptoms. Unfortunately this is usually discovered when someone is dealing with infertility.

Had a chlamydia infection about 2 years ago. Got treated and am now fine. Any chances this infection can cause health problems in the future or no?

Yes. Chlamydia in the past increases your risk of pelvic inflammatory disease and can lead to infertility or at least an increase ectopic (tubal) pregnancies.