Bone infarcts. In sickle cell anemia, there may be bone death, or infarction, with a crisis. These infarctions render bones prone to infections, or osteomyelitis. These infections are most common in long bones, rather than the jaw, but may occur in any bone.
Lack of oxygen. Sickle cell disease can cause tissues to receive inadequate oxygen to survive, most frequently by these red blood cells blocking the blood flow (and hence oxygen) in small blood vessels supplying tissues. If tissue dies it is prone to become infected, and the bodies means of fighting infection is also compromised by the poor blood flow. Large joints are most common, but any tissue is at risk.
Sickle crisis. The disorder leads to internal clotting during hypoxic states. Any where that happens the organ is damaged. So it is with the circulation in the bones.
Answered previously. Hi anandk6. I answered this question recently. Can you not find the answer or did I not answer it satisfactorily?
Several symptoms. Sickle cell anemia leads to pain in the bones. It can also lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, strokes. It affects the bones, brain, kidneys, heart, joints, lungs and spleen.
Stress. While under general anesthesia the body is under increased stress both from the anesthesia and the procedure. This increased stress can increase the rate at which cells sickle potentially causing problems.
Increased sickling. Multiple factors can result in increased sickling during anesthesia and surgery. Chemical changes in the acidity of the blood, oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, body temperature, etc all increase the risk of sickling. Therefore transfusions are strongly recommended prior to surgery to reduce the total number of red cells with hemoglobin s prior to surgery in an attempt to minimize the risk.
Sickling. When someone with sickle cell anemia is in crisis their red blood cells are reconfigured into a sickle shape. This sickled shape cannot carry oxygen adequately. This will lead to hypoxemia.
Sickled red cells. Cause vaso-occlusion by clustering and the patients are frequently anemic. They are high risk especially for major procedures.
Compromising organs. Sickling of the red blood cells can occur from stress or ketoacidosis (diabetes out of control) and causes of low oxygen in the lungs or blood. This will cause the sickled cells to obstruct the flow of the cells that still are able to carry oxygen to the various organs such as the liver, the brain, heart, muscles and any and all tissue. This compromises function of the organ or tissue.