What sort of disorders can schizophrenia cause?

Wrong question. The broad category you're probably asking about is psychosis--impaired reality testing, including hallucinations and delusions. There are many causes from tumors to poisons to various mental disorders such as depression and mania. Schizophrenia is in some ways "pure" psychosis, with no other explanation for the symptoms.
That's the illness. Pts may be depressed by the limitations imposed by their severe, chronic illness.