Genetic hearing loss. Yes, a genetic mutation in mitochondrial RNA has been shown to predispose individuals to hearing and balance problems when they receive amino glycoside antibiotics. This can happen even at low doses typically acknowledged to minimize the risk of toxicity. At high doses, however, amino glycosides can exhibit toxicity in the ear even in individuals without this mutation.
Yes. Mitochondrial genes have been identified which are thro maternal transmission responsible for aminoglycoside induced hearing loss. South africans apparently are more prone for aminoglycoside hearing loss.