Is the structural integrity of the cornea in any way compromised post-lasik when the patient years later requires cataract surgery?

No. As long as you have a baseline healthy cornea that can tolerate lasik, should not affect future cataract surgery. However lasik makes it more difficult to calculate corneal power when selecting a replacement lens.
No, but. The calculations required to predict the correct implant power with cataract surgery is much less precise for an eye that has had refractive surgery.