Doctor insights on:
Will Epinephrine Increase Cardiac Output
Epinephrine: Epinephrine remains a component of the ACLS training by American Heart Association. Measuring 'how' effective it is, is difficult. It is generally considered one of the few drugs that helps in cardiac arrest from 'experience'. A controlled study isn't available. Cardiac Arrest has a very high mortality, we continue to consider epi effective while most other drugs have fallen off the chart. ...Read more
What happens if someone with low blood flow due to coronary arteries receives Epinephrine due to anaphylaxis?
Risk/benefit: Anaphylaxis is a condition which may lead to instant death and thus coronary narrowing is not the primary consideration in the treatment decision. Aside from that, with anaphylaxis, blood flow to the coronary will likely decrease as well if not treated. ...Read more
If cardiac output of 4 l/min is exercised maximally, and cardiac output increases to 8 l/min. What is the cardiac reserve?
It doesn't: In a physiologic model, increased blood pressure or "hypertension" or increased "afterload" tends to decrease cardiac output. In a complete animal or human model, there are various reflexes that work to maintain cardiac output in the face of increased afterload but they shouldn't cause an increase in cardiac output relative to the baseline. ...Read more
Increased pulse: When one has a fever, the body usually responds with vasodilatation (widening of blood vessels) to be nearer the outside of your body and let the heat dissipate. With widening of the vessels the heart must increase the pulse rate to maintain proper blood pressure. There is much more to this and an md can fill you in. ...Read more
Exercise increase CO:
Exercise increases cardiac output as it usually increases both heart rate (hr) and stroke volume (sv) (amount of blood ejected by the heart in each beat) as cardiac output (co)
= hr x sv.
It is a compensatory mechanism to keep up with the demands of oxygen by the body doing exercise. If the cardiac output would not increase, the body would not be able to perform for long. ...Read more
Stroke volume: Cardiac output is determined by heart rate and volume of blood pumped by heart in each heartbeat (stroke volume). Increased fluid volume increases the stroke volume and therefore cardiac output. Decreased fluid volume decreases the stroke volume and therefore cardiac output. ...Read more
How can decreased cardiac output be caused by either increased fluid volume and decreased fluid volume?
Natural: This is the normal pattern of the heart's output based upon the load conditions. The amount of blood filling the heart may vary mildly over time and combined with your level of activity and the force against your heart's ejection of blood (after load) the cardiac output may vary. Most important is that the output does not drop very low as in severe volume loss or weakness of the heart muscle. ...Read more
Decreased.: Preeclampsia is a disorder with decreased intravascular volume (vasoconstriciton and leaky capillaries lead to third-spacing), therefore the cardiac output is accordingly decreased. In rare cases (especially with multifetal pregnancies, large mother/fetus) preeclampsia can cause peripartum cardiomyopathy which can further profoundly decrease the cardiac output. ...Read more
What to do if a transplanted heart has no nerve supply, how does the cardiac output of a transplanted heart increase and adapt to physiological changes?
Hormonal +/- nervous: The transplanted heart responds to hormonal changes. There is also some evidence that the transplanted heart may have some sympathetic re-innervation and possibly conduction of signals from the old sinus node to the new heart. ...Read more
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