Doctor insights on:
Which Complex Carbohydrate Makes Up The Cell Wall In Bacteria
If cell membrane rupture, can contents flowing out of the ruptured cell react with compounds in the extracellular fluid to form another compound? Why?
Yes: Yes. That is chemistry. In a living organism it is Biology/ Physiology. Happens all the time e.g . Malaria Parasite getting into the body through a Mosquito Bite (Extracellular), the parasites traveling to the liver & infecting Red Blood Cells (Intracellular) which then Burst from much parasite multiplication. Others like HIV AIDS also. ...Read more
What toxins?: Many people use the vague term "toxins" to scare u and drive u to buy their product. While there are toxic byproducts of metabloism, urea, carbon dioxide etc that your body needs to clear, it does this already (excellently) using you liver, lungs and kidneys. Most other "toxins" are imaginary. Eat healthy, drink plenty of fluids, exercise etc and dont waste your $ fighting fake toxins! ...Read more
When glucose builds up in the blood system because of pcos, is this the same as "fat" being in your bloodstream?
What is a genetic disease that prevents the phospholipids in the plasma membrane of the white blood cells?
Unusual: Not sure if i understand the question. There is a disorder called scott syndrome where phospholipids are abnormally oriented in the cell membranes. This prevents activation of the cell. The typical manifestation of this is bleeding disorder, due to the inability of platelets to become activated. ...Read more
What is the main culprit in causing plaque build up in arteries when it comes to food content - saturated fat or cholesterol?
What cells make up the majority of a testicle's cells? Isn't it the sertoli/sperm cells and tubules?Aren't the leydig just a small portion of it?
See below: The germ cells inside the seminiferous tubules (sertoli cells) create sperm. The sperm move into the epididymis where they mature. They are stored there for a few weeks until they eventually move up the vas deferens to combine with fluids from the prostate and seminal vesicles to form what you normally think of as semen. The whole process takes about 7 weeks. The leydig cells distributed throughout the testicle are the body's main source of testosterone. Testosterone, the male sex hormone, is essential to the development of the reproductive organs and other male characteristics such as body and facial hair, low voice, and wide shoulders. Without enough testosterone, a man will probably lose his sex drive and suffer from fatigue, depression, hot flashes and osteoporosis ...Read more
Foods used to be cooked in pure trans fats. Is the buildup of cholesterol it caused in people still there? Or does the body eventually break it down?
Transfats get turned: into LDL chol, which in turn gets stuck on the sides of arteries and causes blockage.The trans-fat itself no longer exists in the body after it has been digested. It has been converted to Triglycerides and Cholesterol particles. Some people accumulate the LDL cholesterol in their arteries, others do not. Some people can likely have decrease in buildup if they eat healthy. http://CardioGauge.com ...Read more
Under what circumstance will cellular fluid content which leak from ruptured cell be able to react and alter the chemicals in the interstitial fluid?
Happens every time: This is the norm. Thus, in almost all circumstances, no worries. A cell inside the body is surrounded by interstitial fluid. Therefore if that cell breaks, whatever comes out of the cell gets mixed with the surrounding interstitial fluid. It's like being on a boat in the middle of a lake. If the boat breaks in half, you will end up in the lake... and you infinitesimally alter the lake water. ...Read more
What kind of enzymes rather enzyme which is found in the milk we buy or in all milks which is had to break down in our bodies when we consume it?
I've read that pills should enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining to get into bloodstream. How exactly it penetrates the 'tight zones'?
Thought question: We take these for granted when advising patients. The pills themselves don't get in. The dissolve to their components and either go thru small pores, translocate via enzyme process and help or transport systems, or work on certain receptors in cells, exert their effect on these cells and allow the cells to perpetuate their intended activity through production of certain proteins by the cells. ...Read more
Which digestive organ releases enzymes to help break down starches, proteins and fats in the small intestines?
I read that pasteurized milk, has its protein denatured, in which the structure changes and cant be absorbed in the intestines.is milk protein useless?
Milk: The caseins (one of the milk proteins) are stable to heat treatment. Typical high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization conditions will not affect the functional and nutritional properties of the casein proteins. High temperature treatments can cause interactions between casein and whey proteins that affect the functional but not the nutritional properties. Hope this helps. ...Read more
Is e.Coli a food-borne disease that gets in the body and produces toxins as they grow in your body?
No, from gut.: E. Coli is an enteric bacteria, that is, it is found in your gut. It is also in the gut of many animals, so when meat is processed, it likely gets introduced through fecal contamination. Especially bad are the enteroinvasive kinds, like e. Coli o157:h7, that produce a dysentery syndrome, bacteremia, and sepsis. Often this is in contaminated meat, and uncooked meat, so cook meat thoroughly. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Nucleus not needed: Viral replication can occur wit no host protein requirement. However, viral particle assembly does require the host's golgi apparatus. Please see the following for an in depth review of the pathogenesis of rabies: http://www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/pmc/articles/pmc2600441/. ...Read more
When white blood cell digest the bacteria, will endotoxin released cause less harm to host tissues since endotoxin affect that white blood cell first?
In atherosclerosis, is the calcium and cholesterol contained inside or is it attached to arterial cells?
Both: Cholesterol first accumulates within cells in the arterial wall, then they die off leaving a cholesterol-rich mess. Most atherosclerotic plaques contain little calcium and many contain none; anyone who tells you otherwise is mistaken or lying. The calcium is outside the cells. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
What is the final destination of the dead sperm that breaks down into pieces that is being absorbed by macrophage cells?
More Complex...: It is not just the Insulin receptor but complex internal cellular responses involved in moving membrane with glucose transporter proteins onto the outer membrane. Increasing evidence that this may be a cellular protective response to excess sugars entering cells, beyond burning, storage & fat conversion mechanisms. Study: dietdoctor, nusi.Org & watch http://www.Tedmed.Com/speakers/show?Id=18028. ...Read more
What's the benefit of consuming complex carbohydrates (grains mostly) over simple carbohydrates (fruits, veggies)?
You got it backwards: Fruits and veggies are NOT simple carbohydrates! Simple carbohydrates are sugars and foods that easily break down into sugars,such as white flour,white rice, potatoes and juices.These readily raise our blood sugar, which is unhealthy.Complex carbohydrates are found in whole grains,most vegetables and fruits and generally contain fiber. These raise blood sugar less. See http://tinyurl.com/y8f4cagu ...Read more
Unlikely: No link between the two has been demonstrated. ...Read more
Pathogenic bacteria: Many different ways. Good discussion at wikipedia ...Read more
Symptoms? : No symptoms, this is within normal limits. ...Read more
What mean that urine albumin trace pus cells 12-15 epith.cells+++ crystals amorphous bacteria present?
Urinalysis: Trace albumin means little or nothing. The presence of trace pus cells is probably from a poorly collected specimen contaminated by vaginal secretions, as suggested by the epithelial cells. The amorphous bacteria is also a result of contamination. To be effective in helping diagnosing UTI this should be an assisted clean midstream urine specimen. ...Read more
Kindly interpret my urine analysis micro examination :- pus cells:1-2/hpf, rbc:nil, epi cells : +/hpf, bacteria : +?
Probably normal: With respect to predicting the presence or absence of a urinary tract infection, dipstick urinalysis is often unreliable especially in women because of contamination of the urine specimen with vaginal cells and bacteria. I would consider your u/a fairly unremarkable unless you have symptoms of a UTI in which case a urine culture should be done. ...Read moreSee 2 more doctor answers
Should i be concerned if I have an abnormal epithelial cells (non renal)>10? Mucus threads present and a few bacteria
I did an HVS and it says pus cells is numerous, epihelia cells ++, Bacteria cells ++, and there is E coli after 24 hours of incubation?
UTI? STD? Herpes?: I don't understand "HVS". Do you mean HSV (herpes simplex virus)? The lab results suggest urine and suggest you have a urinary tract infection due to E. coli. But the tags you selected suggest you have vaginal discharge or pus, right? Maybe more than one problem here. Were you also tested for other STDs? Follow your doctor's advice about further testing, treatment, etc. Good luck! ...Read more
Pls help interpret urinalysis: reaction:8.0
pus cells 1-3
ephitheli cells: few
a phospates: moderate?
Depends on your: Symptoms and the reason for the test. There are no obvious abnormalities in the data that you mention, but you should ask the doctor who ordered the test to interpret the results. A doctor will order a test only when there is a good reason to order it.. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
My urinalysis results show: occasional leucocyets, epithelial cells 1/hpf and non squamous epi cell. There's no bacteria. What does this indicate?
"possibly a UTI": While this could represent a lower urinary tact infection, this would most likely represent a contaminated specimen (especially a voided specimen in a female). Most urologists are cautious about "treating the urinalysis" and would follow with a urine culture and sensitivity. ...Read more
Had urine analysis, pus cell 2-3, phosphorate (+++) and in other findings section bacteria (+) is mentioned. Is this report ok?
No it's not.,: You likely have an infection in your pelvic area, probably a uti(urinary tract infection). You've got bacteria in your urine with white cells. Your phosphate reading might be from bacterial production, or something else. You should see your doctor asap to get this worked up and treated. Good luck. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
What does rare squamous epithelial cell laden with bacteria present on cytopsin slide it's the result from my sons bronchoscopy ?
Bronchoscopy AND analysis of specimen: Bronchoalveolar lavage, washings or brushings minimizes the contamination with upper respiratory flora and therefore increases isolation of the etiologic agent. However, the procedure is invasive. If bronchoalveolar lavage, washing or brushings fail to diagnosis the etiologic agent of pneumonia, a percutaneous transtracheal aspiration or lung biopsy may be collected. These are extremely invasive procedures, but will yield a sterile specimen, free of contamination from the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Yes - normally: I'm not sure of the question. The immune system has many cells but includes the b and t lymphocytes are normally activated and respond to infection including bacterial infection. So, the normal immune system is stimulated by normal potential risks to the body including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The predominant cell vs bacteria are neutrophils. ...Read more
Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose from other fuels, and your body can do this from protein and fat. Mainly the liver does this. However, it is virtually impossible to eat a diet with "no carbs". Very low carb diets cause excessive ketosis, which causes a lot of symptoms. ...Read more
Yeast infection?: I've not heard of high vaginal swab (which is what I assume you mean by "hvs") as a self test. What did your doctor say about it? Best to interpret these results in connection with symptoms. Possible yeast infection, but even large amounts of yeast cells (3+) can be normal. But if you're having itching irritation, yeast infection is likely. Check with your doctor. ...Read more
I have high white cells in urine but no bacteria. What could cause this? DR still treating as a UTI.
Here are some ...: If properly collected urine with UA and urine culture pyuria (high wbcs in urine) indeed confirmed no UTI and no microhematuria, your pyuria might result from contamination of technical error in urine collection; then do nothing. If not + microhematuria, you would need an evaluation "minimally" with KUB, renal US (preferrably with CT.IVP, , and cystoscopy to make sure of no stone, tumor, etc. ...Read more