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Doctor insights on: Which Complex Carbohydrate Makes Up The Cell Wall In Bacteria

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If cell membrane rupture, can contents flowing out of the ruptured cell react with compounds in the extracellular fluid to form another compound? Why?

If cell membrane rupture, can contents flowing out of the ruptured cell react with compounds in the extracellular fluid to form another compound? Why?

Yes: Yes. That is chemistry. In a living organism it is Biology/ Physiology. Happens all the time e.g . Malaria Parasite getting into the body through a Mosquito Bite (Extracellular), the parasites traveling to the liver & infecting Red Blood Cells (Intracellular) which then Burst from much parasite multiplication. Others like HIV AIDS also. ...Read more

Bacteria (Definition)

Are omnipresent single celled organisms which are the both the simplest form of life and the original form of life on earth. The are ...Read more


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Which toxins frequently build up in the human body?

Which toxins frequently build up in the human body?

What toxins?: Many people use the vague term "toxins" to scare u and drive u to buy their product. While there are toxic byproducts of metabloism, urea, carbon dioxide etc that your body needs to clear, it does this already (excellently) using you liver, lungs and kidneys. Most other "toxins" are imaginary. Eat healthy, drink plenty of fluids, exercise etc and dont waste your $ fighting fake toxins! ...Read more

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When glucose builds up in the blood system because of pcos, is this the same as "fat" being in your bloodstream?

When glucose builds up in the blood system because of pcos, is this the same as "fat" being in your bloodstream?

No: Glucose is sugar, different from fat. With pcos you do not build up glucose, unless you are also diabetic. Women with pcos may definitely have high Insulin levels, but this also is different. ...Read more

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What is a genetic disease that prevents the phospholipids in the plasma membrane of the white blood cells?

What is a genetic disease that prevents the phospholipids in the plasma membrane of the white blood cells?

Unusual: Not sure if i understand the question. There is a disorder called scott syndrome where phospholipids are abnormally oriented in the cell membranes. This prevents activation of the cell. The typical manifestation of this is bleeding disorder, due to the inability of platelets to become activated. ...Read more

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What is the main culprit in causing plaque build up in arteries when it comes to food content - saturated fat or cholesterol?

What is the main culprit in causing plaque build up in arteries when it comes to food content  - saturated fat or cholesterol?

Both.: Generally speeking saturated fat and cholesterol levels in one's diet corrolate very well with each other, or (again generally speaking) when one goes up they both go up. From that stanpoint, minimizing either should result in a favorable effect. ...Read more

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What cells make up the majority of a testicle's cells? Isn't it the sertoli/sperm cells and tubules?Aren't the leydig just a small portion of it?

What cells make up the majority of a testicle's cells? Isn't it the sertoli/sperm cells and tubules?Aren't the leydig just a small portion of it?

See below: The germ cells inside the seminiferous tubules (sertoli cells) create sperm. The sperm move into the epididymis where they mature. They are stored there for a few weeks until they eventually move up the vas deferens to combine with fluids from the prostate and seminal vesicles to form what you normally think of as semen. The whole process takes about 7 weeks. The leydig cells distributed throughout the testicle are the body's main source of testosterone. Testosterone, the male sex hormone, is essential to the development of the reproductive organs and other male characteristics such as body and facial hair, low voice, and wide shoulders. Without enough testosterone, a man will probably lose his sex drive and suffer from fatigue, depression, hot flashes and osteoporosis ...Read more

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Foods used to be cooked in pure trans fats. Is the buildup of cholesterol it caused in people still there? Or does the body eventually break it down?

Foods used to be cooked in pure trans fats. Is the buildup of cholesterol it caused in people still there? Or does the body eventually break it down?

Transfats get turned: into LDL chol, which in turn gets stuck on the sides of arteries and causes blockage.The trans-fat itself no longer exists in the body after it has been digested. It has been converted to Triglycerides and Cholesterol particles. Some people accumulate the LDL cholesterol in their arteries, others do not. Some people can likely have decrease in buildup if they eat healthy. http://CardioGauge.com ...Read more

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Under what circumstance will cellular fluid content which leak from ruptured cell be able to react and alter the chemicals in the interstitial fluid?

Under what circumstance will  cellular fluid content which leak from ruptured cell be able to react and alter the chemicals in the interstitial fluid?

Happens every time: This is the norm. Thus, in almost all circumstances, no worries. A cell inside the body is surrounded by interstitial fluid. Therefore if that cell breaks, whatever comes out of the cell gets mixed with the surrounding interstitial fluid. It's like being on a boat in the middle of a lake. If the boat breaks in half, you will end up in the lake... and you infinitesimally alter the lake water. ...Read more

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What kind of enzymes rather enzyme which is found in the milk we buy or in all milks which is had to break down in our bodies when we consume it?

What kind of enzymes rather enzyme which is found in the milk  we buy  or in all milks which is had to  break down  in our bodies when we consume it?

Lactose: Lactose is a sugar composed of two easily absorbed simple sugar molecules bound together that must be broken down by an enzyme found in our guts. That enzyme fades as some people age, and then the complex sugar becomes in essence a laxative as it passes through unabsorbed. ...Read more

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I've read that pills should enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining to get into bloodstream. How exactly it penetrates the 'tight zones'?

I've read that pills should enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining to get into bloodstream. How exactly it penetrates the 'tight zones'?

Thought question: We take these for granted when advising patients. The pills themselves don't get in. The dissolve to their components and either go thru small pores, translocate via enzyme process and help or transport systems, or work on certain receptors in cells, exert their effect on these cells and allow the cells to perpetuate their intended activity through production of certain proteins by the cells. ...Read more

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Which digestive organ releases enzymes to help break down starches, proteins and fats in the small intestines?

Which digestive organ releases enzymes to help break down starches, proteins and fats in the small intestines?

Pancreas: the pancreas is the organ that releases the enzymes to help breakdown starches, proteins and fats in the small intestines. ...Read more

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Which natural items can I eat to fight the cholesterol that is produced by the body?

Which natural items can I eat to fight the cholesterol that is produced by the body?

Read this: Read these short articles for reducing cholesterol, weight, blood sugar: https://www.kaushikmd.com/get-started/ https://www.kaushikmd.com/breakfast-ideas/ ...Read more

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I read that pasteurized milk, has its protein denatured, in which the structure changes and cant be absorbed in the intestines.is milk protein useless?

I read that pasteurized milk, has its protein denatured, in which the structure changes and cant be absorbed in the intestines.is milk protein useless?

Milk: The caseins (one of the milk proteins) are stable to heat treatment. Typical high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization conditions will not affect the functional and nutritional properties of the casein proteins. High temperature treatments can cause interactions between casein and whey proteins that affect the functional but not the nutritional properties. Hope this helps. ...Read more

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Is e.Coli a food-borne disease that gets in the body and produces toxins as they grow in your body?

Is e.Coli a food-borne disease that gets in the body and produces toxins as they grow in your body?

No, from gut.: E. Coli is an enteric bacteria, that is, it is found in your gut. It is also in the gut of many animals, so when meat is processed, it likely gets introduced through fecal contamination. Especially bad are the enteroinvasive kinds, like e. Coli o157:h7, that produce a dysentery syndrome, bacteremia, and sepsis. Often this is in contaminated meat, and uncooked meat, so cook meat thoroughly. ...Read more

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Can the rabies virus replicate in the cytosol of an axon as opposed to the axons cell body?

Can the rabies virus replicate in the cytosol of an axon as opposed to the axons cell body?

Nucleus not needed: Viral replication can occur wit no host protein requirement. However, viral particle assembly does require the host's golgi apparatus. Please see the following for an in depth review of the pathogenesis of rabies: http://www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/pmc/articles/pmc2600441/. ...Read more

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When white blood cell digest the bacteria, will endotoxin released cause less harm to host tissues since endotoxin affect that white blood cell first?

When white blood cell digest the bacteria, will endotoxin released cause less harm to host tissues since endotoxin affect that white blood cell first?

Endotoxin: Endotoxin is released by only certain bacteria when they are destroyed. So technically the endotoxin can onlyl exert their effects after the bacteria are killed and are still within the bacteria's cell while it's alive. ...Read more

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In atherosclerosis, is the calcium and cholesterol contained inside or is it attached to arterial cells?

In atherosclerosis, is the calcium and cholesterol contained inside or is it attached to arterial cells?

Both: Cholesterol first accumulates within cells in the arterial wall, then they die off leaving a cholesterol-rich mess. Most atherosclerotic plaques contain little calcium and many contain none; anyone who tells you otherwise is mistaken or lying. The calcium is outside the cells. ...Read more

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Which defect occurs in the insulin receptor protein that causes diabetes?

Which defect occurs in the insulin receptor protein that causes diabetes?

More Complex...: It is not just the Insulin receptor but complex internal cellular responses involved in moving membrane with glucose transporter proteins onto the outer membrane. Increasing evidence that this may be a cellular protective response to excess sugars entering cells, beyond burning, storage & fat conversion mechanisms. Study: dietdoctor, nusi.Org & watch http://www.Tedmed.Com/speakers/show?Id=18028. ...Read more

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What's the benefit of consuming complex carbohydrates (grains mostly) over simple carbohydrates (fruits, veggies)?

What's the benefit of consuming complex carbohydrates (grains mostly) over simple carbohydrates (fruits, veggies)?

You got it backwards: Fruits and veggies are NOT simple carbohydrates! Simple carbohydrates are sugars and foods that easily break down into sugars,such as white flour,white rice, potatoes and juices.These readily raise our blood sugar, which is unhealthy.Complex carbohydrates are found in whole grains,most vegetables and fruits and generally contain fiber. These raise blood sugar less. See http://tinyurl.com/y8f4cagu ...Read more

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Hi my result in fecalysis is. yeast cell is many and bacteria is many?

Hi my result in fecalysis is. yeast cell is many and bacteria is many?

Sounds normal: Fecal analysis is a scam. No important health information results, especially in people with no symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramping, etc. Yeast cells are normal in stool, and so are "many bacteria". (Over half the weight of feces is made up by bacteria.) ...Read more

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A clean catch urine sample showed bacteria and squamous cell. I was told this is normal.?

Contaminated specimn: Squamous cells on a clean catch means it was not really a clean catch. The squamous cells come from contaminating the urine collection by touching the cup or having the urine touch your labia. The skin is covered in bacteria. ...Read more

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What mean that urine albumin trace pus cells 12-15 epith.cells+++ crystals amorphous bacteria present?

What mean that urine albumin trace pus cells 12-15 epith.cells+++ crystals amorphous bacteria present?

Urinalysis: Trace albumin means little or nothing. The presence of trace pus cells is probably from a poorly collected specimen contaminated by vaginal secretions, as suggested by the epithelial cells. The amorphous bacteria is also a result of contamination. To be effective in helping diagnosing UTI this should be an assisted clean midstream urine specimen. ...Read more

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Kindly interpret my urine analysis micro examination :- pus cells:1-2/hpf, rbc:nil, epi cells : +/hpf, bacteria : +?

Probably normal: With respect to predicting the presence or absence of a urinary tract infection, dipstick urinalysis is often unreliable especially in women because of contamination of the urine specimen with vaginal cells and bacteria. I would consider your u/a fairly unremarkable unless you have symptoms of a UTI in which case a urine culture should be done. ...Read more

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I did an HVS and it says pus cells is numerous, epihelia cells ++, Bacteria cells ++, and there is E coli after 24 hours of incubation?

I did an HVS and it says pus cells is numerous, epihelia cells ++, Bacteria cells ++, and there is E coli after 24 hours of incubation?

UTI? STD? Herpes?: I don't understand "HVS". Do you mean HSV (herpes simplex virus)? The lab results suggest urine and suggest you have a urinary tract infection due to E. coli. But the tags you selected suggest you have vaginal discharge or pus, right? Maybe more than one problem here. Were you also tested for other STDs? Follow your doctor's advice about further testing, treatment, etc. Good luck! ...Read more

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Pls help interpret urinalysis: reaction:8.0 specific gravity:1.005 pus cells 1-3 bacteria: moderate ephitheli cells: few a phospates: moderate?

Pls help interpret urinalysis: reaction:8.0
specific gravity:1.005
pus cells 1-3
bacteria: moderate
ephitheli cells: few
a phospates: moderate?

Depends on your: Symptoms and the reason for the test. There are no obvious abnormalities in the data that you mention, but you should ask the doctor who ordered the test to interpret the results. A doctor will order a test only when there is a good reason to order it.. ...Read more

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My urinalysis results show: occasional leucocyets, epithelial cells 1/hpf and non squamous epi cell. There's no bacteria. What does this indicate?

My urinalysis results show: occasional leucocyets, epithelial cells 1/hpf and non squamous epi cell. There's no bacteria. What does this indicate?

"possibly a UTI": While this could represent a lower urinary tact infection, this would most likely represent a contaminated specimen (especially a voided specimen in a female). Most urologists are cautious about "treating the urinalysis" and would follow with a urine culture and sensitivity. ...Read more

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What does positive for bacteria and squamus cell in urinalysis mean?

What does positive for bacteria and squamus cell in urinalysis mean?

Contaminated: It means the urine specimen was contaminated with skin cells, so you can't determine whether the bacteria is in the urine or just from the skin. ...Read more

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Had urine analysis, pus cell 2-3, phosphorate (+++) and in other findings section bacteria (+) is mentioned. Is this report ok?

Had urine analysis, pus cell 2-3, phosphorate (+++) and in other findings section bacteria (+) is mentioned. Is this report ok?

No it's not.,: You likely have an infection in your pelvic area, probably a uti(urinary tract infection). You've got bacteria in your urine with white cells. Your phosphate reading might be from bacterial production, or something else. You should see your doctor asap to get this worked up and treated. Good luck. ...Read more

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What does rare squamous epithelial cell laden with bacteria present on cytopsin slide it's the result from my sons bronchoscopy ?

What does rare squamous epithelial cell laden with bacteria present on cytopsin slide it's the result from my sons bronchoscopy ?

Bronchoscopy AND analysis of specimen: Bronchoalveolar lavage, washings or brushings minimizes the contamination with upper respiratory flora and therefore increases isolation of the etiologic agent. However, the procedure is invasive. If bronchoalveolar lavage, washing or brushings fail to diagnosis the etiologic agent of pneumonia, a percutaneous transtracheal aspiration or lung biopsy may be collected. These are extremely invasive procedures, but will yield a sterile specimen, free of contamination from the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract ...Read more

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How do bacteria trigger the b and t white blood cells?

How do bacteria trigger the b and t white blood cells?

Yes - normally: I'm not sure of the question. The immune system has many cells but includes the b and t lymphocytes are normally activated and respond to infection including bacterial infection. So, the normal immune system is stimulated by normal potential risks to the body including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The predominant cell vs bacteria are neutrophils. ...Read more

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How can the body supply glucose to the brain cells if there is no carbohydrates in your diet?

How can the body supply glucose to the brain cells if there is no carbohydrates in your diet?

Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose from other fuels, and your body can do this from protein and fat. Mainly the liver does this. However, it is virtually impossible to eat a diet with "no carbs". Very low carb diets cause excessive ketosis, which causes a lot of symptoms. ...Read more

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I did hvs, epithelial cells 3+, pus cells 1-3/hpf, yeast cells 3+, bacteria nil..what can i do?

I did hvs, epithelial cells 3+, pus cells 1-3/hpf, yeast cells 3+, bacteria nil..what can i do?

Yeast infection?: I've not heard of high vaginal swab (which is what I assume you mean by "hvs") as a self test. What did your doctor say about it? Best to interpret these results in connection with symptoms. Possible yeast infection, but even large amounts of yeast cells (3+) can be normal. But if you're having itching irritation, yeast infection is likely. Check with your doctor. ...Read more

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I have high white cells in urine but no bacteria. What could cause this? DR still treating as a UTI.

I have high white cells in urine but no bacteria. What could cause this? DR still treating as a UTI.

Here are some ...: If properly collected urine with UA and urine culture pyuria (high wbcs in urine) indeed confirmed no UTI and no microhematuria, your pyuria might result from contamination of technical error in urine collection; then do nothing. If not + microhematuria, you would need an evaluation "minimally" with KUB, renal US (preferrably with CT.IVP, , and cystoscopy to make sure of no stone, tumor, etc. ...Read more

Carbs (Definition)

Carbs is an abbreviation for carbohydrates. The human body breaks down carbohydrates into basic sugars such ...Read more