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Doctor insights on: When Does Exogenous Erythropoietin Becomes Necessary

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When does exogenous erythropoietin becomes necessary?

When does exogenous erythropoietin becomes necessary?

Kidney failure: Erythropoietin is commonly used in people with anemia due to kidney failure. Other uses include anemia associatid with hiv, chemotherapy and some types of bone marrow diease. It may also be used pre-surgically in certain selected patients. It has also been used improperly as a performance enhancing agent in competative sports. ...Read more

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Dr. Barbara Lavi
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Procrit (Definition)

Procrit is a ...Read more


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If the autonomic system is significantly severely damaged what happens if it stops producing hormones such as adrenaline ?

If the autonomic system is significantly severely damaged what happens if it stops producing hormones such as adrenaline ?

Adrenaline: Epinephrine and norepinephrine sometimes collectively referred to as adrenaline, are essential hormones for normal physiologic function of the body particularly when the body is under stress. They are primarily produced in the adrenal glands but are neurotransmitters as well. Their absence would be incompatible with life. ...Read more

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When does a liver transplant become necessary?

When does a liver transplant become necessary?

When liver fails: When the degree of liver dysfunction does not permit the removal of toxins in the blood or the formation of proteins needed for normal survival like clotting proteins; the liver may need to be replaced. A failing liver can affect many vital functions including altering of mental status. ...Read more

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Does taking a melatonin supplement eventually lead to the body not producing it naturally anymore?

Does taking a melatonin supplement eventually lead to the body not producing it naturally anymore?

Melatonin: Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland. Seratonin - a neurotransmitter is converted to melatonin. Any hormone taken in excess can lead to the bodies reduction of its own production. Taking normal doses should not affect the bodies normal production. Things like stress and lower seratonin production can lead to lower melatonin levels. ...Read more

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Does insulin makes the cells to absorb glucose without converting it into Glycogen ?

Does insulin makes the cells to absorb glucose without converting it into Glycogen ?

Be good 2your liver: Insulin causes skeletal muscle and fat cells to absorb blood glucose. This glucose often comes from the liver after glycogenolysis. This is the breakdown of glycogens, which are the sugars your liver stores in long chains to use later. the release of blood sugar from these glycogen chains is done via the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. ...Read more

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How does thyrotropin releasing hormone travel from the hypothalamus to wherever it needs to be?

How does thyrotropin releasing hormone travel from the hypothalamus to wherever it needs to be?

By the blood vessel: Trh is produced in the hypothalamus and travels by blood vessel to the anterior pituitary gland where it stimulates the production of thyroid stimulating hormone. ...Read more

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When is an albumin infusion necessary?

When is an albumin infusion necessary?

Rarely: There are other ways to build up blood volume. Albumin does not last very long. It is usually given when other types of infusion have already been done. ...Read more

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What hormone activate adenosine a2a receptor to widen the arteries and when is it released?

What hormone activate adenosine a2a receptor to widen the arteries and when is it released?

Local: Adenosine has a very short half life (only a few seconds). It is not in that sense a "circulating hormone". It's effects are mainly local and produced by cells, including heart muscle. It's production increases when there is need for increased circulation and blood flow to the heart, such as physical stress. ...Read more

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Why is it that cancer cells stimulate angiogenesis even if they are known to constitutively perform glycolysis?

Why is it that cancer cells stimulate angiogenesis even if they are known to constitutively perform glycolysis?

Wow...molecular: Listen, i'm just a practicing oncologist but i'll give it a crack. If i remember well, glycolysis is a fairly ineffective way to produce atp compared to cellular respiration so my guess would be that malignant cell will still try to go the route that provides the best production of energy. This requires oxygen and by necessity requires blood flow, achieved by neovascularization thru angiogenesis. ...Read more

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Is it possible for a person to get both diabetes type 1 and 2? As in, the insulin receptors become so irresponsive that blood glucose levels rise twice as rapidly?

Is it possible for a person to get both diabetes type 1 and 2? As in, the insulin receptors become so irresponsive that blood glucose levels rise twice as rapidly?

Yes and no: Patients with type 1 diabetes who develop Insulin resistance requiring lots of Insulin have both. It is sometimes referred to as type 1 1/2 dm. Insulin resistance will often accompany obesity, poor diabetes control and high triglycerides, for example. Blood sugars don't "double" in rate, but Insulin doses may go up significantly to maintain control of blood sugars. ...Read more

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Controversy surrounds those patients with a suppressed tsh. Isn't it true that when a hypothyroid patient starts taking exogenous th, a negative feedback system reduces the pituitary gland's output of tsh. This decreases the thyroid gland's output of en

Controversy surrounds those patients with a suppressed tsh.  Isn't it true that when a hypothyroid patient starts taking exogenous th, a negative feedback system reduces the pituitary gland's output of tsh.  This decreases the thyroid gland's output of en

Endo feedback: With primary hypothyroidism, TSH is elevated in an effort to push the thyroid gland to make more thyroxine. Treatment with levothyroxine indeed signals the pituitary to reduce TSH output. Secondary is when either/or pituitary +/- hypothalamus is damaged but unable to produce tsh. Then, thyroxine levels drop but the pituitary can't respond. Tsh can't monitor treatment but free T4 levels can. ...Read more

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Does testosterone therapy(gel) works in "adjunction" with body's normally produced testosterone? Or, does it stop and replace the normal testosterone?

Does testosterone therapy(gel) works in "adjunction" with body's normally produced testosterone? Or, does it stop and replace the normal testosterone?

Your own TEST stops: With shots, gels, creams, patches of Testosterone your own testicular testosterone will come to a temporary stand still. Depending on how long it is depressed your testes can start up again. After 2-3 years they may not respond well again. This is one reason for not taking T as a youngster . In the older male. 50. Plus it will not make as much difference . T at any age needs careful attentio ...Read more

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Does masterbating affect muscle growth ? Does it decrease testosterone level ? In how time does the lowered testosterone level become normal ?

Does masterbating affect muscle growth ? Does it decrease testosterone level ? In how time does the lowered testosterone level become normal ?

Masturbation is: normal, healthy, and natural. It does not cause any negative effects on your muscles or testosterone levels. In fact, boys who masturbate a lot may have elevated testosterone levels. You are likely feeling guilty about this due to social pressures. Don't worry about what others tell you about this private matter. Chances are the people who are telling you to stop are doing it also. ...Read more

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Is there something that can be done when the bone marrow isn't producing enough imature red blood cells and your hgb gets lower.?

Is there something that can be done when the bone marrow isn't producing enough imature red blood cells and your hgb gets lower.?

Yes, but we need: More information on why there is a production problem. Could be iron folate (folic acid) or B12 which would be treated with supplementation. If it is related to kidney problems then it would be treated with erythropoietin ...Read more

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When human bone start to produce blood ?

When human bone start to produce blood ?

Before birth: A newborn baby's bone marrow has already been actively producing blood cells. The fetal hemoglobin (the type of hemoglobin the baby makes before birth) stops being made after the baby is born, and his bone marrow continues to make blood cells... But the red cells will be made with his "adult" or non-fetal hemoglobin type. ...Read more

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Explain what happens when the antigen binds with t cell receptor?

Explain what happens when the antigen binds with t cell receptor?

T cell activation: In most cases, antigen must be "shown" to the t cell receptor along with a protein called mhc. If the cell with the antigen/mhc also has the proper co-stimulatory proteins, the t cell is activated (like needing 2 keys to fire a missle). If the extra proteins are not present, the t cell may cease to function. If the t cell was already activated, it can produce chemicals and/or kill the other cell. ...Read more

Dr. Marvin Ott
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Epogen (Definition)

Epogen is a ...Read more