Doctor insights on:
What Induces Apoptosis In Cancer Cells
Many factors.: There are many factors/regulators that induce apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. These are defective or turned off in cancer cells. For example, the x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xiap) is overexpressed in cancer cells. Xiaps bind to caspase-9, and suppress apoptotic activator cytochrom c, allowing the damaged cells to live. Deactivation of p53 apoptotic protein is another example. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Cancer is a group of diseases that is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth leading to invasion of surrounding tissues that spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can begin anywhere in the body and is usually related to one or more genetic mutations that allow normal cells to become malignant by interfering with internal cellular control mechanisms, such as programmed cell death or by preventing ...Read more
Possibly many ways.: This is the active ingredient in chili peppers that causes a burning sensation. It binds to the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (vr1), which triggers a temperature oriented inflammatory reaction. Some of its effects on cancer are inconclusive, like stomach cancer. It appears to have proposed effects of other cancers, like breast cancer by causing apoptosis by affecting the egfr/her-2 pathway. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Would introducing mutated cells right next to cancer cells reverse the production of cancer cells?
Mutations: Several of the known mutations that contribute to the malignant phenotype work by opposing the normal mechanisms of apoptosis. The discovery of bcl2 mutations driving lymphoma was the first of many. Here's a now-classic paper http://carcin.Oxfordjournals.Org/content/21/3/485.Full. ...Read more
How often do glial cells multiply and divide? Particularly glial cells in the brain stem? What causes cancer to form here? How many mutations?
Disordered growth: Benign tumors grow locally and do not spread. Under the microscope, the cells look like the gland they are from and they are not invading. Cancer cells have disordered growth, frequently do not look like the originating gland and show invasion. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Since cancer cells induce cell signaling to increase growth factors in early stages, can that region of cancer be contained and aspirated to survive?
P53 mutation: In addition to the turning on of oncogenes producing proteins specific for cancer, there is a mutation in the p53 gene that controls cell cycle and prolongs interval to division when a mutation in DNA is recognized. This mutation rather than being repaired during the cell cycle is passed on to the next cell in the form of mutated DNA ...Read more
Not really: When Folkman discovered angiostatin as a way of controlling animal tumors it was tried as a way of controlling cancer in patients. It failed. While blood vessels at the surface of the tumor are necessary for metastasis, most if not all tumors function by anaerobic metabolism and don't need blood. To help destroy tumor treat them in a hyperbaric chamber. ...Read more
Cause?: Cancers arise from clones within clones within clones of genetically altered cells capable of giving rise to other cells -- the precursor cells are the tissue stem cells. Visible tumors are maintained largely by an inconspicuous subpopulation of cells within themselves, at least early. This is mostly a research focus and isn't any revolutionary new truth. ...Read more
Genome destabilized: The key to cancer is that enough mutations have accumulated to render the genome itself unstable. Eventually a clone will acquire the ability to invade and spread. We can pick this up using molecular biology techniques. They also look different, but it takes a pathologist several years to learn to tell all the subtleties. ...Read more
Unregulated growth: The "cell clock" is often referred to as the cell cycle. Think of this as a series of stop and go lights during the lifetime of a cell. Mutations can change a "stop light" to a "green light" resulting in unregulated growth of cells. That unregulated growth can result in the cancer. ...Read more
Multiple steps: Changes in the dna of cells, some changes may be inherited, increase the growth rate of cells and additional changes to the 'dna develop and select for more growth. Many incipient cancers probably die out in the process. As more dna changes promoting growth accumulate the abnormal cells become autonomous, invade and metastasize. On average a cancer has 90 dna changes/mutations. ...Read more
Mutation in p53: normal cells that divide have control over a mutation that arises. If so, the division is slowed by p53 so that mutations in DNA are repaired and not passed to next generation. In cancer the mutation in the p53 oncogene does not function to slow cell division for repair and the mutation is passed to next generation of cells. ...Read more
Do believe the research findings that garlic can cause tumor and cancer cells to undergo apoptosis?
In vitro vs. In vivo: I am unclear about garlic in particular, but let's look at anti-cancer therapy more generally. Many, many (all?) things can kill cancer cells (=apoptosis; there are other modes of cell death, but apoptosis is the most common) in vitro (outside of the body). The predictive ability of in vitro killing to in vivo (in body) effectiveness is not great. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
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