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Doctor insights on: What Are The Main Parts Of The Lungs

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How do cancerous cells spread from the lungs to the other parts of the body?

How do cancerous cells spread from the lungs to the other parts of the body?

Ways to spread: Hematologic and lymphatic spread- i.e. Through the blood and lymphatic organ. Also, can spread directly- with direct invasion to the adjacent organ.

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Lung (Definition)

Deoxygenated blood enters the lungs from the right side of the heart and travels to the lungs. When you inspire, oxygen flows into the lungs, transverses the capilliares and attaches to hemoglobin down a gradient. At the same time, co2 diffuses into the capilaries and is expelled with exhalation. Oxygen rich blood then flows to the left side of the heart and into the ...Read more


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Does the composition of blood change as it passes through different parts of the body (e.g. the intestines and the lungs)?

Does the composition of blood change as it passes through different parts of the body (e.g. the intestines and the lungs)?

Well sure...: More oxygen/less CO2 in blood after passing thru lungs; more absorbed nutrients after passing thru gut; first-pass metabolism occurs in liver; reduced nitrogenous waste after passing thru kidneys, etc.

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Have 2 low grade cancerous tumors already in two separate parts of the body lungs/kidney would the next tumor found and being biopseed be low as well?

The grade: Is not as crucial as the cell type. It says you are using o2. Both lung and urothelial cancers are smoking related. Should you develop a third cancer, having 2 low grade cancers conveys no information about a third. Have you sought genetic testing?

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How can lung cancer affect other parts of your body?

How can lung cancer affect other parts of your body?

Varies: Metastatic spread can cause all kinds of pain, lumps, fractures etc. There are some signs of bone pain without spread called pulmonary osteoarthropathy and clubbing may be a sign. There are some tumors with endocrine effects.

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I have a TB on the lymph node. Do the bacteria can spread to the other parts on the body especially lungs?

I have a TB on the lymph node. Do the bacteria can spread to the other parts on the body especially lungs?

Yes, tuberculosis: Is an infection caused by bacterium. It can affect any organ. You need to have proper anti-tb treatment.

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What parts of the spinal cord tell the heart to beat and the lungs to breath so if it was damaged, you could die pretty suddenly?

What parts of the spinal cord tell the heart to beat and the lungs to breath so if it was damaged, you could die pretty suddenly?

Vagus Nerve: Comes directly from the brain, not from spinal cord, controls heart & lungs. Phrenic nerve controls the diaphragm this comes off from cervical nerves in the neck c3 -c5, so you would have to damage spinal cord high in the neck to affect breathing.

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I've been breaking out with a rash on differnt parts of body for last several days, plus yesterday my lungs have started burning and have bad cough,?

I've been breaking out with a rash on differnt parts of body for last several days, plus yesterday my lungs have started burning and have bad cough,?

Rash and cough: There are many possibilities but you likely have an infectious process and may be contagious. As you are having increasing symptoms and your lungs are involved, you should see your doctor or go to an urgent care as soon as possible. You need full evaluation and treatment. Avoid contact with others until you know what you have.

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If you had lung cancer that has spread to other parts of your body would it probably be big enough to be seen on X-ray or your blood work be off?

If you had lung cancer that has spread to other parts of your body would it probably be big enough to be seen on X-ray or your blood work be off?

Yes and no: When Cancer starts to spread, it begins as clusters of cells that form tiny colonies in other body parts. These will grow in size over a few months to become visible on X-rays and various diagnostic imaging tests such as CT scan and or PET scan. Blood tests do not show cancer cells, so we rely on the above imaging tests and repeat them periodically (every 2-3 months) to monitor for the tumor growt

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If parts of the lung became hypoxic but the rest of the body had enough oxygen, would this still cause a short of breath feeling?

If parts of the lung became hypoxic but the rest of the body had enough oxygen, would this still cause a short of breath feeling?

Theoretically...: Consider ventilation-perfusion mismatches classically shown by V/Q scans. To deliver oxygen & release carbon dioxide, you need circulating capillaries & open alveoli. "Parts of the lung [becoming] hypoxic" is not exactly the right phrasing. But, along those lines, if you had a lobe collapse, an embolus, or pulmonary edema, if large enough, they will impact ventilation & cause shortness of breath.

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If you have pleural effusion, does the liquid collect to the lower parts of the lung when sitting? Doctor only checked lower part of back with doppler

If you have pleural effusion, does the liquid collect to the lower parts of the lung when sitting? Doctor only checked lower part of back with doppler

Yes: Rarely, the fluid collection gets walled in and become fixed. But otherwise the collection will fill the lower parts first on gravitational force.

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Why doesn't primary TB occur in lung apices like secondary TB does?

Why doesn't primary TB occur in lung apices like secondary TB does?

TB: It can. The primary focus is usually the right lower lobe because that is the easiest site of entry for inhaled droplet nuclei containing afb. When the infection reaches the local nodes they suppurate, erode into an adjacent artery and the m. Tbc then spreads throughout the body to the areas with most blood flow. Either the patient then forms multiple granulomas or goes on to develop miliary tb.

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Have 2 low grade tumors in the lungs and kidney with the lungs being primary. Would the next tumor they are going to biopsy be low grade as well?

Have 2 low grade tumors in the lungs and kidney with the lungs being primary. Would the next tumor they are going to biopsy be low grade as well?

Lung Tumor: If I understand you correctly, you have a low grade lung tumor that has spread to the kidney, and not two separate tumors. As a general rule, a new metastasis will have the same morphology as the original tumor, but, even so, a metastatic lung tumor, even if it is "low grade, " requires immediate treatment, which may include surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation, depending on the diagnosis.

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What are the main symptoms of interstitial lung disease?

What are the main symptoms of interstitial lung disease?

Low oxygen: Co2 diffuses faster than o2 and the early findings in interstitial lung diseases is dyspnea on exertion and proven by desaturation with exercise or even walking. The work up then starts from there. It could mimic pulmonary hypertension in manifestations.

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Will a cured primary complex from 20 years ago show any lung scarring on X-rays?

Will a cured primary complex from 20 years ago show any lung scarring on X-rays?

Maybe: Some primary TB infections leave scars in the lung that might show up on chest Xray, but not necessarily. Many (most?) people have entirely normal Xrays after primary TB.

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What is a primary lung infection with slight regression hyperaerated lung fields?

What is a primary lung infection with slight regression hyperaerated lung fields?

Pneumonia: Primary lung infection most commonly means pneumonia. Regression means that the infection has decreased since the last study. Hyperaerated lungs can mean that the patient took an intentional deep inspiration or that there is air trapping due to airway blockage, which can be due to asthma, COPD, and other causes.

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What does it mean to have a primary lung infection with hyperaerated lung fields?

What does it mean to have a primary lung infection with hyperaerated lung fields?

Pneumonia with COPD: It usually means that you have pneumonia with air trapping or obstructive pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis or asthma). The pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics. The hyperaeration may be secondary to the pneumonia and resolve as the infection does. If it is from smoking or reactive airways, steroids and bronchodilators may be necessary (as well as to quit smoking).

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Does every Primary Complex diagnosis cause scars on the lungs? Is this lifetime or any lung scar can clear up?

Does every Primary Complex diagnosis cause scars on the lungs? Is this lifetime or any lung scar can clear up?

Primary complex: Not every primary complex leaves a lung scar seen on X-Ray. It usually takes some calcification or growth of granulation tissue to be seen. Some of them heal completely without Leaving any trace.

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Had primary pneumothorax 2 weeks ago, they did VATS and removed bullae. Can pneumothorax reappear again? Also, is lung capacitty now smaller? Thanks

Had primary pneumothorax 2 weeks ago, they did VATS and removed bullae. Can pneumothorax reappear again? Also, is lung capacitty now smaller? Thanks

1) Yes 2) Maybe not: Without a complete history, I am only speculating, but -- 1) If you have other bullae now or new ones develop in the future, you do have a risk of recurrence. 2) Bullae are often not functional and take up space in the chest that could be used by functional lung - by removing them you can actually increase lung function.

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My 29 year old was daughter was diagnosis with high grade undifferentiated sarcoma primary site lung 13.9 CM mass removed in nov. What is her prognosis?

My 29 year old was daughter was diagnosis with high grade undifferentiated sarcoma primary site lung 13.9 CM mass removed in nov. What is her prognosis?

Variable: It depends on her stage of disease that I assume was early and her sarcoma had not metastasized and hence she had surgery. She will need oncological follow up and chemotherapy may be indicated. Please see an oncologist and discuss pathology reports with them.