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Doctor insights on: What Are Pap Smear Callbacks And How Are They Triggered

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What are pap smear callbacks and how are they triggered?

What are pap smear callbacks and how are they triggered?

Abnormal or insuff?: The most common reason for a patient to be called back is that the pap is abnormal or atypical. In this case either a colposcopy may be done or the pap may be repeated a few months later to see if it is still abnormal. Another reason to be called back is that there were insufficient cells in the sample and another one needs to be sent. ...Read more

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Dr. Ed Friedlander
942 doctors shared insights

Pap Smear (Definition)

A pap smear (cervical smear) is a text looking at the cells from the canal and outside of the cervix to see if any abnormalities (especially ...Read more


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What causes angiokeratomas on vulva? Dr says these are rare for women, so what caused me to develop them and how to treat? Are they cancerous?

What causes angiokeratomas on vulva? Dr says these are rare for women, so what caused me to develop them and how to treat? Are they cancerous?

They just happen: Don't worry about fabry's if you don't have themelsewhere. I suspect there's a genetic component. There's a counterpart in men who get them on the scrotum -- some guys get hundreds, most guys get none, they're actually not that rare on the vulva (though i'm a pathologist and i tend to see a lot of stuff) and they have no premalignant potential. ...Read more

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People are always going on about whiteheads. What are they caused by?

People are always going on about whiteheads. What are they caused by?

Blocked follicles: Whiteheads, or closed comedones, are due to hair follicles that are plugged by a combination of keratin (skin flakes) and sebum (skin oil). ...Read more

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Why are pregnant women more at risk for food-borne illnesses? What are they and how can they avoid them?

Why are pregnant women more at risk for food-borne illnesses? What are they and how can they avoid them?

Cook and wash: Pregnant women are more at risk because their immune system goes into a bit of hibernation in order to avoid rejecting the growing babe as "foreign". Food borne illness is bacteria on food. Ways to avoid: Cooking meats well, avoiding lunch meats and unpasteurized cheese, avoiding sushi, washing fruits and vegetables. ...Read more

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Why isn't HPV included in a routine STD test or pap? So many people have it and think they are STD free because they are ignorant about it.

Why isn't HPV included in a routine STD test or pap? So many people have it and think they are STD free because they are ignorant about it.

It usually is: It is the recommendation that it is done routinely but it is an expensive test with the technology not available everywhere. Accommodations must be made for docs not able to comply. You must remember, there are still people doing smears on a slide. For those docs that can get it done but don't, we must take the time to update our education if we are going to provide the service. ...Read more

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How many different strains of yeast infections are there? What are they called. What type of tests should I have my gyn run?

How many different strains of yeast infections are there? What are they called. What type of tests should I have my gyn run?

Ask gynecologist: Your gynecologist will know what types of tests to run, if he/she knows your symptoms and questions. First rule of thumb is to be as honest as possible with your doctor. ...Read more

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Is it common to protect and be paranoid of there spouse about bad things they done to them they are doing or have done to borderline personality dis?

Is it common to protect and be paranoid of there spouse about bad things they done to them they are doing or have done to borderline personality dis?

Yes: The woman with ptsd and borderline personality disorder will likely be protective of her husband. She may shield the outside world from what is going on within the household. This is very similar to the stockholm syndrome. Please read about that on www.Wikipedia.Org. It sounds like you are a victim of abuse and your husband is the perpetrator if I am reading your question correctly. Please work on that in therapy. You do not have to put up with bullying behavior within a marriage.One book that i often recommend to women in your situation which may or may not apply is "the sociopath next door".Another book is called a dance with the devil. Please discuss these options with your therapist before purchasing them however. Best wishes. ...Read more

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If some warts caused by HPV are so small you can't see them, how can I be sure they are gone?

Doesn't matter: Once you acquire these you can carry the germ in your tissues indefinitely and pass them to a partner with or without visible lesions. With the help of therapy and your immune system most clear the primary infection within 2 years and don't notice a recurrence, but it can. ...Read more

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I was wondering what are sickle cells and why are they important?

I was wondering what are sickle cells and why are they important?

Sickle cell disease: You can google it for more details. The wikipedia entry is pretty accurate, although pretty technical. Sickle cells are a shape of red blood cells caused by a mutation found predominantly in people from sub-saharan regions. The disease can be either mild or severe. Attacks cause severe pain and multiple other complications. ...Read more

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I have lumps in my breasts and you can feel them. They are cysts and tissue. How do I know which ones are of concern when doing a self breast exam?

I have lumps in my breasts and you can feel them. They are cysts and tissue. How do I know which ones are of concern when doing a self breast exam?

Sorry, you can't: even in experienced hands, very difficult to tell if lump is of concern or not. Imaging of your breasts best way to help determine if the lumps are of concern or not. Screening mammogram and possible ultrasound to start. Hope this was helpful. Best of luck. Dr R ...Read more

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What is circumvallate papillae and are they normal?What they do and why they come from?Please

What is circumvallate papillae and are they normal?What they do and why they come from?Please

tongue bumps: On the back of your tongue are several larger bumps than normal taste buds. These are entirely normal and are part of your tasting and digestive apparatus. ...Read more

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Why are they still doing prostate biopsy's when they are not 100% accurate and there are complications?

Why are they still doing prostate biopsy's when they are not 100% accurate and there are complications?

Good: Question for an urologist, but my guess is that many will have benign prostate hypertrophy and when prostate on palpating is not smooth and irregular, with an equivocal psa level, the biopsy of a suspicious area may pick up malignant cells before they may spread. ...Read more

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What kinds of cervical biopsy are there, and do they hurt?

What kinds of cervical biopsy are there, and do they hurt?

Several: A smear / brush shouldn't hurt. A little local anesthetic is plenty for an incisional biopsy. A conization for attempted cure of preinvasive cancer is more but won't be nearly as annoying as a wisdom tooth and gives a strong likelihood of a cancer cure. Good luck, and i'm pleased that you are taking a proactive approach to your health. ...Read more

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What are the tests for gastritis and when are they needed?

What are the tests for gastritis and when are they needed?

? Clinical DX !: I've rarely done any test for gastritis in kids in three decades. A patient presents with vomiting and no concurrent diarrhea & we treat it with gradual fluid support & advance as tolerated. As you age & the DX possibilities grow from the typical kid things, other conditions would require pursuit. Looking for heliobacter (asst with ulcers), blood test for pancreatitis etc or endoscopy. ...Read more

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What kind of book or website would have a very in depth explanation of how t cells are made? Most places tell what they do, but not how they are made.

What kind of book or website would have a very in depth explanation of how t cells are made? Most places tell what they do, but not how they are made.

Immunology: these are basic immunology books that doctors use for training and learning and may be too technical for a non medical person. Janeway's Immunobiology is one. ...Read more

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Im going to have amniocentesis done, what are the risk and are they high?

Im going to have amniocentesis done, what are the risk and are they high?

Depends: Amniocentesis carries a small risk of rupture of the bag of water and miscarriage. You might be quoted a risk of 1 in 200 as a ballpark number. The risks will depend on gestational age - obviously it is less risky at the end of the pregnacy versus earlier in pregnancy. ...Read more

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For a normal pregnancy, how many ultrasounds are done and when are these done?

For a normal pregnancy, how many ultrasounds are done and when are these done?

Let me advise you: Fetal ultrasound is often done during the first trimester to confirm and date the pregnancy and again during the second trimester — between 18 and 20 weeks — when anatomic details are visible. If your baby's health needs to be monitored more closely, ultrasounds might be repeated throughout the pregnancy. ...Read more

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What are mucus membranes and how and why are they affected by asthma?

What are mucus membranes and how and why are they affected by asthma?

Mouth nose eyes : Mucus membranes are the soft tissue at openings of your body such as your mouth, nose, around eyes, throat, anus and vagina. Asthma can dry the secretions of mucus membranes but more often treatments for asthma can do this. ...Read more

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Cervical Smear (Definition)

A cervical smear or pap smear is a text looking at cells from the outside and canal of the cervi to see if ...Read more