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Doctor insights on: Types Of Enzymes And Their Functions

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What factors modify enzyme structure and function?

What factors modify enzyme structure and function?

Quite a lot: Enzymes are under a wide variety of controls. Plain chemistry: they speed reactions. If the stuff to do the reaction (substrate) arent' there, it don't go. Rate changes with temperature, concentration of reactants, etc. Regulation. Negative feedback . generally the end result inhibits enzyme further activity. Not always. Regulators small compounds ..cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP often are regulators. ...Read more

Dr. Ed Friedlander
11 doctors shared insights

Thalassemia And Hemoglobinopathy (Definition)

Thalassemia is a type of hemoglobinopathy. It is inherited from one or both of your parents. There are many kind of thalassemia. Most causes anemia (low red blood cell count). Anemia couod be severe requiring blood. Taking iron does not cure the disease. Thalassemia is common in people living in the mediteranian countries, africa, middle east, india, and sotheastern asia such ...Read more


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Can you explain to me how the lac operon functions, and explain how it permits e.Coli to produce the enzymes needed to?

Not here: I appreciate your interest but we can't do biology tutoring in 400 characters. The working-out of the biology of the lac operon was one of the great scientific achievements of the 20th century. Watson's "Molecular Biology of the Gene" tells the story and the basics. Best wishes. ...Read more

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Can you tell me for instance, what enzyme is inhibited by aspirin and what function does this enzyme carry out?

Can you tell me for instance, what enzyme is inhibited by aspirin and what function does this enzyme carry out?

Thromboxane: Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect by inhibiting the production of thromboxane, which under normal circumstances binds platelet molecules together to create a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels ...Read more

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Any thoughts on TUDCA? (Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid) Read that some docs recommend to improve liver enzyme function tests?

Any thoughts on TUDCA? (Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid) Read that some docs recommend to improve liver enzyme function tests?

Which doctors?: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an ambiphilic bile acid that is the taurine conjugate form of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)--a prescription for some liver-related diseases. If you have abnormal liver function tests (LFT's), your best actions now are to find the cause & treat it rather than self-medicate, as well as (if warranted) management of obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, & alcohol intake. ...Read more

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Hida scan shows 17% function @ 20 min. No pain during exam 4.3 m of technetium 99m of choletec. 1.5mcg of cck. Bilirubin is 1.5 enzymes good.

Hida scan shows 17% function  @ 20 min. No pain during exam 4.3 m of technetium 99m of choletec. 1.5mcg of cck. Bilirubin is 1.5 enzymes good.

Not sure of results: Most laboratories determine ejection fraction, percentage of emptying at 30 or 60 minutes after injection of cck. I am not sure meaning of ejection fraction at 20 minutes. ...Read more

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We know 5ar type II enzyme is found in spinal cord. Can its suppression with propecia (finasteride) in the long term cause permanent cognitive & speech problems?

We know 5ar type II enzyme is found in spinal cord. Can its suppression with propecia (finasteride) in the long term cause permanent cognitive & speech problems?

Probably not: I don't think anyone knows the answer to this question at this time. Although, Finasteride has been used as a treatment for prostate problems for many years and i don't think there is any report of people having cognitive or speech problems from using it. So it's unlikely that Propecia (finasteride) will cause any cognitive or speech problems if used long term. ...Read more

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What does it meen if my dr tells me that my blood tests show an elevation in enzymes she said something about my heart? Is it serious and what type of specialist will i have to see? She said she wil phone a specialist tomorrow but just wnt 2 b ready.

Need more info: All laboratory results need to be interpreted in the clinical context and the doctor who ordered the tests is usually in the best position to do that. Talk to the doctor who ordered the tests. Having said that, it would have helped had you provided the actual results.
Wish you good health! ...Read more

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Liver function test are all normal and enzymes are good what's chance of having liver cancer?

Liver function test are all normal and enzymes are good what's chance of having liver cancer?

Low: Why do you even think about it? If you can give us some background for asking your question, we can guide you better. Unless you have had long standing liver disease like hepatitis or chronic alcohol excess, you have little reason to suspect liver cancer. ...Read more

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Could a grade three liver laceration still effect liver enzyme levels and liver function nearly ten years later?

No: Elevated liver enzymes suggests recent liver cell damage due to viral, drug, poison or other causes. ...Read more

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Is there a blood test that can detect enzyme deficiencies? If so what is the name of the test? What type of doctor can test you for enzyme deficiency?

Is there a blood test that can detect enzyme deficiencies? If so what is the name of the test? What type of doctor can test you for enzyme deficiency?

Depends: It depends on what symptoms one has. If the symptoms are gastrointestinal,then a gastroenterologist would order the appropriate tests. For hormonal problems, an endocrinologist is best. For blood problems, a hematologist is best,etc. The specialist looks for the enzyme deficiency. ...Read more

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Having HIV "controlled" and hepatitis unchecked for a decade also twenty-five years of heavy drinking. Now my liver functions are low with high enzyme?

Having HIV "controlled" and hepatitis unchecked for a decade also twenty-five years of heavy drinking. Now my liver functions are low with high enzyme?

High cost of hi life: Youth can be a wild and careless time. Many of us discover the price is higher than we knew or would have believed anyway. It is sad but hopefully you can still eek out some good decades by really taking good care of yourself. I hope it was at least an enjoyable time so you can feel you got some value for what you paid. Follow treatment recommendations and write a great memoir. Teach by example! ...Read more

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Blood test results showed elevated liver enzymes and elevated kidney function. What does this mean?

Blood test results showed elevated liver enzymes and elevated kidney function. What does this mean?

Need for evaluation: It is not feasible to provide a meaningful opinion without taking a history, physical examination, looking at the actual lab results and may be additional studies. Lab results need to be interpreted in the clinical context and the doctor who ordered the tests is in the best position to do that. ...Read more

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Is low functioning gallbladder with elevated liver enzymes of AST 77 ALT 142 contributed by a underlying disease? If so what diseases?

Liver disease: Isolated "low functioning gallbladder" without gallstones would not commonly cause elevation of ast/alt. This could indicated fatty liver condition, hepatitis exposure, medication causing liver inflammation, etc. See your doctor or a gastroenterologist for full liver evaluation. However, if you do have gallstones then that could be a cause of the blood test results. ...Read more

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1.44 billirubin which is apparently slightly high. Enzymes and rest of liver functions all normal. AFP norma. CBC normal. What to think?

1.44 billirubin which is apparently slightly high. Enzymes and rest of liver functions all normal. AFP norma. CBC normal. What to think?

Need to examine: All laboratory results need to be interpreted in the clinical context and the doctor who ordered the tests is usually in the best position to do that. Having said that, if bilirubin is only abnormal result, you may watch and wait. If you have no symptoms. Do not use Tylenol (acetaminophen) and related meds, no alcohol and you may repeat it in a year or so. For good health - Have a diet rich in fresh vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, nuts, beans, legumes, lentils and small amounts of lean meats. Avoid saturated fats. Exercise at least 150 minutes/week and increase the intensity of exercise gradually. Do not use tobacco, alcohol, weed or street drugs in any form. Practice safe sex. Get HPV vaccine. ...Read more

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Elevated liver enzyme with normal other liver function and normal ultrasound and negative hepatitis b and c virus ??

Elevated liver enzyme with normal other liver function and normal ultrasound and negative hepatitis b and c virus ??

2 thoughts:: A common cause of asymptomatic elevations in liver enzymes is fatty liver(Non alcoholic fatty liver disease: NAFLD). This is very common in obesity and is considered to be part of the metabolic syndrome. Ultrasound will be "normal" (i.e. falsely negative) in 17% of patients with NAFLD. A less common cause=choledocholithiasis(stones in common bile duct). Often missed on ultrasound. Can be asymptom ...Read more

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I am a type 1.5 diabetic. What other hormones/enzymes could my pancreas be deficient? My liver is constantly over producing glucagon.

I am a type 1.5 diabetic.  What other hormones/enzymes could my pancreas be deficient? My liver is constantly over producing glucagon.

LADA: Latent autoimmunity causes some adults to develop type one diabetes after type 2 or Insulin resistant type is present. Have you been screened for celiac disease? It could be the underlying cause for your problems. ...Read more

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Can digestive disorders cause elevated alt/ast enzymes, liver is clean according to scan but elevated liver function dizziness & nausea persist 4months?

Can digestive disorders cause elevated alt/ast enzymes, liver is clean according to scan but elevated liver function dizziness & nausea persist 4months?

Blood tests are: Just that, tests. Scan is an image, a picture. You didn't say how elevated your liver enzyme tests are, but if they are really high and stay there or get worse, it means that your liver cells are not working well, even though your liver's image is good. Ask your doctor who ordered the tests why you still have nausea after 4 months. Could be hepatitis. ...Read more

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Digestive enzymes for Ibs constipation? witch type? Contraindication with any of the following? Xanax, Seroquel, Escitalopram, Lamotrigine?

Digestive enzymes for Ibs constipation?  witch type?  Contraindication with any of the following? Xanax, Seroquel, Escitalopram, Lamotrigine?

“Plant” source a mix: IBS has many reasons , including but not only , pancreatic problems, brush border dysfunction, inflammation food allergies , aging ,Low stomach acid,stress,; Paleo-style diet helps; side effects Diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, or nausea, allergic reaction, severe abdominal discomfort, painful urination, joint pain, May interact with acarbose, miglitol. IN Pregnancy use in caution; ...Read more

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They say my gallbladder is overworking itself and functions at 91% i have had elivated liver enzymes after my pregnancy i had choleystasesdoineeditout?

They say my gallbladder is overworking itself and functions at 91% i have had elivated liver enzymes after my pregnancy i had choleystasesdoineeditout?

Not enough info.: Although all of these items shed some light on your gallbladder, there is not enough information here to be able to say definitively whether you should have your gallbladder out. If you are having gallbladder symptoms, I would go to your doctor or to a G.I. doc for an opinion, or to HealthTap Prime, if you have all your labs and x-ray results available. Good luck. ...Read more

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Iv sedation didn't work on me and my oral surgery was stopped. All of my blood work (including liver function/enzymes) was normal. What happened?

Iv sedation didn't work on me and my oral surgery was stopped. All of my blood work (including liver function/enzymes) was normal. What happened?

Provider: Your provider was probably performing dental work and anesthesia at the same time. He did not feel safe to administer more medication, which can be related to his expertise, your away or equipment in the office. He did a right think, keeping it safe. ...Read more

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Shadow showing on ultrasound of pancreas, all p.enyzme levels normal. liver function normal. blood results normal only high cholesterol. cyst?

Shadow showing on ultrasound of pancreas, all p.enyzme levels normal. liver function normal. blood results normal only high cholesterol. cyst?

Well: You must have had a doctor who ordered the scan. Call him and have him go over the results to be sure you understand the results. Have the doctor explain to you ...Read more

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Can someone explain telemetry monitoring? What is a telemetry floor? My mother was a cardiac patient with a pacemaker and type 2 diabetic with an abnormal EKG and elevated cardiac enzymes. She was found unresponsive and cold and had suffered a m.I.. She a

Can someone explain telemetry monitoring? What is a telemetry floor? My mother was a cardiac patient with a pacemaker and type 2 diabetic with an abnormal EKG and elevated cardiac enzymes. She was found unresponsive and cold and had suffered a m.I.. She a

Her : Her abnormal ekg and elevated enzymes indicate that she probably came into the hospital with an mi. Anoxic encephalopathy can occur as quickly as 2 - 4 minutes, or potentially even less depending on her condition prior to the arrest. A telemetry floor is where patients are placed so that their heart rhythm can be monitored continuously, either by the nurses on the floor or a specially trained technician. A telemetry box, attached to ekg leads on the patient, transmits the rhythm strip wirelessly to a central monitoring station. Training in interpretation of ekg's is usual for nurses on such a floor. On a telemetry floor response to an arrest will be much quicker than in a situation where the heart rhythm is not monitored. Arrests can still happen, though, since the heart rhythm may continue for a while after a patient stops breathing or even, insome instances after the heart stops pumping blood. ...Read more

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What is enzyme?

What is enzyme?

An enzyme is...: An enzyme is something that helps change one thing into a different thing. Enzymes are inside all living things. For example, an enzyme changes starch into sugar. Some people have one missing or a few missing, deficient, or abnormal enzymes. There are many many many different enzymes in our bodies. Some medications and some supplements are enzymes. ...Read more

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What does mean 1 enzyme lower?

Unclear question: Possibly relating to liver enzymes? Pancreatic/digestive enzymes? ...Read more

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Can childen take Maru-Man Enzyme?

Questionable: I did some research and couldn't find any scientific studies on this product. From the sales pages it appears to be stating it's a combination of fruit/veges/enzymes for digestion. It's not regulated by the FDA so I would advise caution as no one is making sure the company is delivering on their promises. Best to stick with the natural fruits and veges available at the store. ...Read more

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What can cause enzyme levels to be off ?

Need more info: There are many different enzymes so not able to answer definitively. Two of the most common to be told are high would be liver or cardiac. Since cardiac are usually tested as inpatient you may mean liver. The most common reason would be fatty liver which can be from obesity, elevated lipids or sugars, alcohol or genetics. Hepatitis, infectious and autoimmune, and cancer can also be the cause. ...Read more

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39 year old male enzymes at 29, 000. Why.

Which enzyme?: Hard to say without some specific enzyme and some context about why the test was drawn. ...Read more

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Why am I having trouble writing and typing?

Why am I having trouble writing and typing?

Occupation cramp?: Writers cramp is a possibility see a neurologist. ...Read more

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What are the pros and cons of taking enzymes?

Broad Question: Unfortunately the question is missing the meat. There are a million enzymes. What specifically are you asking about? ...Read more

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How does temperature affect our body's enzymes?

Temp: All enzymes go faster as temperature rises. But if too high the coagulate and you die as in heat stroke. ...Read more

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What are functions of the liver biology?

What are functions of the liver biology?

Liver function : The liver detoxifies and metabolizes everything you consume by mouth and everything that goes there in your blood. ...Read more

Dr. Hunter Handsfield
123 doctors shared insights

Hsv Type 1 And 2 (Definition)

A variety of infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Type 1 infections are marked by the eruption of vesicles on lips or at the external nares; type 2 by such lesions on the genitalia. Both types often are dormant and reappear during febrile illnesses or even physiologic states such as menstruation. The viruses become latent and and may not ...Read more


Enzyme (Definition)

An enzyme causes the transformation of a compoond to another compound. In living structures, it is the transformation of a protein to another form. An example is from an inactive state ...Read more