Doctor insights on:
Testing For Botulism
Consult a specialist: Mitochondrial diseases are quite complicated and best evaluated at a specialized research center or a university medical center. The united mitochondrial disease foundation website (www.Umdf.Org) lists several types of blood and urine tests, heart echo (ultrasound), brain mri, eye and audiology exams, heart ekg, spinal fluid tests, chromosome tests, muscle biopsy, etc... As possible test choices. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Depends: It depends on the test needed, how the blood sample is preserved and whether the test is on cells or on the liquid part of blood. White cells last just a few days, even on refrigeration. Some chemicals like cytokines need to be tested for immediately. Antibodies can be tested days later in a refrigerated specimen and years later if the serum is stored at -40 degree. ...Read more
Prevention: If a parent is known to carry the huntington's mutation, there is a 50% chance they will pass this to their offspring. If undergoing ivf, the embryos can be testing for the gene, so that only unaffected embryos will be implanted. If already pregnant, chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis can test for the gene, and affected pregnancies have the option of termination. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Why would urine be used to test for HIV and not blood? How accurate is urine for testing for hiv?
Blood is optimal: Blood tests are more sensitive, but antibodies are also present in the urine and collecting urine specimen is easier than collecting blood. Oral fluid can also be tested for HIV antibody. A positive urine screening test, like a blood screening test would need confirmatory testing, generally by testing blood. Urine can be used for confirmatory testing but a negative result may not be reliable. ...Read more
Two tests: Not sure i would call it a "rule", but i would say that: 1. One HIV negative test is never enough. 2. One is not HIV positive until: i. Hiv screen is positive, and ii. The screen is confirmed by a positive western blot of course there are a few nuances to this, but you will have to be more specific about your question. ...Read more
Proper eval a must: Such things as inadequate restorative sleep, poor diet, other medical conditions and anxiety all present problems of focus, a proper evaluation is needed.Some of the meds used are controlled (restricted drugs) for which your doc must show just reason for use or risk loss of license. Some docs are less concerned with testing and will just give you something and hope it helps....poor care. ...Read moreSee 2 more doctor answers
Sometimes: There are tests which can measure bacterial antigens ( proteins made by a bacteria that the body can mount an immune response against) which can be indentified in urine of infected patients, thus helping diagnose the infection with these germs. Legionella and strep pneumonia are two such germs for which a urine antigen can be measured. ...Read more
Yes, but...: The HIV RNA tests are checking for the presence of certain parts of HIV. When positive, it can give us an idea of how much HIV is present. Most of the time, when positive, it highly suggests HIV infection. However, in rare instances, there can be false positive tests, which mean that a positive test may represent something else, not HIV. Thus, the best test for HIV is a standard HIV antibody test. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
No: There are now hundreds of recessive diseases for which prenatal testing is available, and more are being added all the time, but there are thousands of recessive diseases, most of them quite rare. ...Read more
When tested for hiv, how should a strongly positive ELISA test (index above 7) and a negative western blot be interpreted? What additional testing is required?
Likely negative: This is probably a negative test. If the results haven't changed in a month, then you're definitely not infected. If you don't want to wait that long, you could get a viral load test. An undetectable viral load would be highly reassuring, but i'd still repeat the serology. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer