Doctor insights on:
Space between eyes: This is a number needed by eyeglass makers to properly space the optical centers on eyeglasses and it is the exact distance between the centers of the two pupils when the eyes fixate at a distance. It is needed on a prescription from an optical shop (termed P.D.) and you would need it if you order eyeglasses online. ...Read more
Depends: If all the visual fibers in one eye are lost, then the pupil will react depending upon the light shining upon the other eye (due to interconnected reflexes) (termed amaurotic pupil). Some can lose all vision and retain the pupillary fibers so the eye will react to light. If the eye is lowered in vision (legally blind) it can still react to light. Also some blindness is from trauma; fixed pupils ...Read more
Recent pupillary distance was measured as 65; before it was always 63, as adult. Does this reflect an underlying health issue?
Not to worry: Pupillary distance measurements are not very accurate, so it is unlikely that you have a problem. In the rare instance where you might have a cyst in the sinus or a tumor behind the eye, you would see an eye bulging or would have double vision. ...Read more
Marcus-Gunn pupil: An afferent pupillary defect indicates a lesion in the afferent limb (retina or optic nerve) of the pupillary reflex. Such a lesion is best appreciated on the "swinging flashlight test." a lesion in the left optic nerve will decrease the perceived illumination in that eye, and when the flashlight is swung from the right to the left eye, the left pupil will appear to dilate slightly. ...Read more
Do I need to have a different pupillary distance value for the single vision (SV) reading, SV computer and SV reading? How determined for all three?
Pupils diameter widened permanently. Pupillary rsponse to light absolutely fine. Going through a low phase emotionally. Minor headache sometime. Worry?
People vary: Your pupils could be large, but still be normal. There are tall people and short people, it all follows a bell shaped curve. With all the problems in your side of the world, anyone would feel this. I feel it from around the world. ...Read more
My ophthalmologist said that I have afferent pupillary defect (apd 5) and hippus, what does this means?
Pupil changes: An afferent defect of the pupil refers to an abnormal dilation instead of constriction when light hits the eye. It is due to major loss of total light input in the affected eye such as massive retinal loss, optic nerve disease, etc. Hippus is a twitchy pupil jerkiness and sometimes is normal but can be seen in response to certain drugs. ...Read more
Can you tell me how actors control their pupillary response when something such as a flashlight is shone into their eyes?
They don't: It is impossible to control the pupils response to light and /or dark, . There are drops that can make the pupils get smaller and that make the pupils get bigger. These can affect the eyes ability to focus. ...Read more
We're learning about pupillary reflexes in school. What does it mean if if the reflex to light is equal but slow?
Miosis: It means both eyes are responding equally to light but slowly. ...Read more
Recent pupillary distance was measured as 65; before it was always 63, as adult. Does this mean my old specs (no chg in power) are bad for my eyes now?
My ophthalmologist said that I have afferent pupillary defect (apd 5) and hippus in my right eye, what does this means?
Group A strep: It's not quite clear what you mean without the context behind the testing. But it very well could represent group A streptococcal testing. This is common test done when someone has a sore throat to make sure he/she doesn't need antibiotics. Really on group A strep pharyngitis (sore throats) need antibiotic therapy most others resolve on their own without issue. Best of luck ...Read more
No: Sjogren's does give you a somewhat increased risk of malignant lymphoma, and it may run with a disease like lupus or scleroderma which you'd know by now whether or not you have. By itself, sjogren's is a nuisance disease. The most dangerous feature is that maybe 1% of patients get a vasculitis that can cause brain dysfunction that mimics multiple sclerosis. Be alert as it's manageable. ...Read more
RSD...: Rsd = reflex sympathetic dystophy. Other names for the same condition include sudeck's atrophy or complex regional pain syndrome (crps). The condition often occurs after an injury. Three phase bone scan is used to aid in diagnosis. Classic finding on three phase bone scan is increased peri-articular uptake. Children may show atypical presentation on three phase bone scan. ...Read more
RSD, or: Complex regional pain syndrome can be difficult to treat and each patient needs to be treated differently. Opioid medications are definitely not the first option. Consider medications that affect nerve pain most, like neuromodulators such as gabapentin. Clonidine has been found to help some as well. Stellate ganglion blocks can be diagnostic/therapeutic. Consider topical ketamine creams as well. ...Read more
Needs an evaluation: Shortness of breath is not normal, unless it is the mild, temporary shortness of breath with sports activities (but even then, one must be sure he is not having more shortness of breath than his sports peers have). Possible reasons for shortness of breath include heart attack, heart arrhythmia, heart failure, fluid around the heart, fluid around or in the lungs, asthma, chestwall tightness, etc... ...Read more
Cause trouble: Hemoglobin s is the substitute inherited hemoglobin in those with sickle cell anemia. This is protective against malaria but is not helpful away from malaria areas. It causes the blood to clot inappropriately, leads to susceptibility to infections, causes clotting and of course low blood count. ...Read more
Anesthesiology use: Asa classification is use by anesthesiologists to grade general medical status of a patient. I.E asa 1 = perfectly healthy, asa 2 = 1 or 2 non serious co-morbidities which should be noted, but should not interfere with adminstration of anesthesia. Asa3 = serious co-morbidities such as hemophilia, recent heart attack etc. Which may seriously affect patient during anesthesia +/or surgery. ...Read more
Very few!: The plague or typhoid fever is very rare in the us. According to the cdc approximately 5, 700 cases/yr and the majority are acquired while traveling to foreign countries (about 3/4 of them). In the developing world, about 21.5 million people are affected each year. Although serious, typhoid these days can be treated with common antibiotics. ...Read more
Not submitted to FDA:
Ivabradine has been approved for
marketing for patients with angina by several regulatory agencies throughout the world. The drug has never been submitted for review by the fda because the french manufacturer, servier, lacked an american subsidiary to market the drug. However in july 2013, amgen announced that it had obtained commercial rights in the U.S. To this novel oral drug for further tests. ...Read more
Your History and exa: The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is made by history and physical exam. There are at present no blood tests or x-rays that confirm this diagnosis. A history of generalized muscular pain that is both in the upper part of your body and below the waist that has been present for at least 3 months without a clear cause is suggestive of this diagnosis. A positive tender point exam is needed to confirm. ...Read more