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Doctor insights on: Patients Anthrax Quarantined Other Tested

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How many people worldwide have been infected with epidemic typhus?

How many people worldwide have been infected with epidemic typhus?

A big killer.: It has been said that epidemic typhus (rickettsia prowazekii) has killed more humans than all the wars in history. It is transmitted classical by infected clothing (body) lice and in the last century has dwindled substantially worldwide but pops up occasionally in this of strife, famine or war. A substantial outbreak occurred in burundi about 20 years ago. ...Read more

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Shouldn't people be screened for complement system deficiencies and/or dysfunction before being vaccinated? Aren't vaccines harmful to these people?

Shouldn't people be screened for complement system deficiencies and/or dysfunction before being vaccinated?  Aren't vaccines harmful to these people?

No: We recommend full vaccination for patients with complement deficiency. In fact, particularly with Neisseria and pneumococcus, these vaccines provide more benefit to complement-deficient individuals compared with the normal population. ...Read more

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Which vaccines are suitable for liver transplanted people? Especially influenza vaccine

Which vaccines are suitable for liver transplanted people? Especially influenza vaccine

Liver transplant: Solid-organ transplant recipients benefit from consistent immunization practices. Recommended vaccines include pneumovax, hepatitis A and B, influenza, and tetanus-diphtheria.Specific contraindications exist for other vaccines, such as yellow fever, oral polio vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and vaccinia. Clin Microbiol Rev. Jul 2003; 16(3): 357–364. ...Read more

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Are meningococcal infections spread from person to person?

Are meningococcal infections spread from person to person?

Infection: Meningococcal infections are typical highly contagious and can spread from person to person, particularly in the young and school age kids. ...Read more

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Can the Hepatitis B vaccine alone (first shot for an unvaccinated person), given 48 hours post-exposure, prevent infection?

Can the Hepatitis B vaccine alone (first shot for an unvaccinated person), given 48 hours post-exposure, prevent infection?

Not likely: If you have been definitively exposed to Hep B then will need HBIG/hep B immune globulin as well as the hep B vaccine. The immune globulin will act like a sponge and soak up any hep B virus present currently in your body. The hep B vaccine then stimulates your body to produce antibodies, which will then attach to and disable the viral particles. This process takes 2-4 weeks to make antibodies. ...Read more

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How many times must one get vaccinated in their lifetime to be successfully immune hepatitis b virus?

How many times must one get vaccinated in their lifetime to be successfully immune hepatitis b virus?

Usually Once: The hbv vaccine is a series of 3-4 shots over a 6 months time period. At least 90% of people will develop immunity following that series. A portion of remaining people will respond to a second series. There is a very small group who do not develop immunity from vaccination. Booster shots are no longer recommended for people with normal immune status who have been fully vaccinated. ...Read more

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Can 2 lesbians transmit HIV to each other?

Can 2 lesbians transmit HIV to each other?

Theoretically: Could they? Yes. Do they? Hardly ever. For one thing, HIV infection is rare among lesbians. Those who do have it usually got it either from sex with men or from sharing needles, not from sex with women. Hypothetically, HIV could be spread through lesbian sex. For example, one partner could get infected through oral contact with menstrual blood or vaginal secretions from an infected partner. ...Read more

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Cousin in china diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia pulmonary edema, resistant to all antibiotics, and low protein? Treatment? Cost?

Cousin in china diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia pulmonary edema, resistant to all antibiotics, and low protein? Treatment? Cost?

No way to know: There is no way to know the answer to this without more detail. It would depend on how ill, whether the patient is on a mechanical ventilator, other medical problems, etc. ...Read more

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Can the virus be transmitted with hiv-related antibodies to the other HIV negative person?

Can the virus be transmitted with hiv-related antibodies to the other HIV negative person?

Unclear question: Body fluids of an HIV infected can transmit HIV with or without any antibodies that may be associated with the infection. However, HIV does not spread through the air. ...Read more

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Are HIV patients ok to get an MMR measles vaccination?

Are HIV patients ok to get an MMR measles vaccination?

Not really: As a live attenuated vaccine, we avoid them in immunocompromised people. Most people have been immunized with MMR as children anyway but if an HIV infected person who is susceptible to measles is in the midst of a measles outbreak, the measles vaccine is way better than wild type measles. ...Read more

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How many years HIV infected person live with treatment?

How many years HIV infected person live with treatment?

Near normal life: HIV infected persons who respond to treatment and are compliant with treatment have near normal life span. ...Read more

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How many documented melanoma deaths with patients on enbrel (etanercept)?

How many documented melanoma deaths with patients on enbrel (etanercept)?

Not knowable: I appreciate your concern, but this is the kind of data that can't be obtained by any means. Enbrel (etanercept) is an immunomodulator that may suppress the immune response which has a small impact on melanoma progress; it's also given for psoriasis in which the skin cancer risk is already up. It's worth the risk; do keep a close eye on your skin so that skin cancers get rx'd early & there' s no risk of death. ...Read more

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Aside from Lyme itself, do the long-term and sometimes extreme treatment protocols by "Lyme literate mds" for tick-borne illness have any truth? They have you believe all humans in the E USA need combitorial antibiotics/antiprotozoals to find health

Aside from Lyme itself, do the long-term and sometimes extreme treatment protocols by "Lyme literate mds" for tick-borne illness have any truth?  They have you believe all humans in the E USA need combitorial antibiotics/antiprotozoals to find health

Beware of quacks: The problem with Lyme disease is that there is a whole other 'culture' of treating Lyme that is well outside of established medical principles. There's actually a case I know of where the patient DIED because of some 'quack' treatment by one of these Lyme doctors. I suggest you seek out a board certified Infectious Disease doctor who can offer you real options that actually work and restore health ...Read more

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Who should be vaccinated against anthrax?

Who should be vaccinated against anthrax?

Military & lab work: People at risk for contracting anthrax should be immunized against it. Currently certain military personnel, people who work with anthrax in labs, people who work with imported animal hides or furs from areas of high levels of anthrax, and veterinarians working in areas (outside of usa) with high levels of anthrax. ...Read more

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