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Doctor insights on: Organisms That Make Their Own Food

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Why does our body not reject the insulin made from genetically modified organisms like bacteria?

Why does our body not reject the insulin made from genetically modified organisms like bacteria?

Similar structure: Hi the engineered insulins are VERY similar in structure to native human insulin. The human insulin gene is rearranged so that the engineered protein differs from regular human insulin by only 1 amino acid. The change is significant for how the insulin molecules behave at acid/neutral pH or how they fail to aggregate, but not enough to be recognized as different by the immune system. Fortuitous! ...Read more

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Organisms (Definition)

1. An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus; a body made up of organs, organelles, or other parts that work together to carry on the various processes of life. 2. A system regarded as analogous in its structure or functions to a living ...Read more


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Please explain why doesn't our body reject the insulin made from genetically modified organisms like bacteria?

Please explain why doesn't our body reject the insulin made from genetically modified organisms like bacteria?

Human insulin: Hi. Human insulin made by cloning the human insulin gene into bacteria or yeast is amino acid-for-amino acid identical to normal human insulin. In the fermentation process, the human insulin gene is purified away from ALL bacterial (or yeast) proteins, so all your body sees is a normal human protein. Engineered insulins (glargine, lispro, aspart, glulisine) have such minor amino acid changes. ...Read more

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If you keep a patient hydrated, will their antibiodies eventually kill cholera on their own?

If you keep a patient hydrated, will their antibiodies eventually kill cholera on their own?

Usually: Per the CDC- "With prompt rehydration, fewer than 1% of cholera patients die." REF: https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/index.html. Oral and intravenous hydration is the key to treatment. Antibiotics can help to shorten the course of illness. ...Read more

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Is it true that eating animal proteins can cause cancer & that the cancer industries want us to remain sick in order to keep making millions off of us?

Is it true that eating animal proteins can cause cancer & that the cancer industries want us to remain sick in order to keep making millions off of us?

Cynical view point: Humans need some animal proteins, (note that milk, including mother's milk, is an animal protein) as a source of vitamin B12. If you take supplemental vitamin B12 and vitamin D, you do not need to eat animal proteins. If you believe animal proteins cause cancer, do not eat meat! ...Read more

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Should manufacturers reevaluate the shape of their hot dogs to make choking less likely?

Should manufacturers reevaluate the shape of their hot dogs to make choking less likely?

Chewing more will: All solid foods hold the potential risk of chocking no matter what size of shape. I believe the key to good digestion and prevention of chocking, provided you have a healthy gag reflex, is to properly and thorougly chew your food. You should chew your food between 15-25 times. This will aid digestion as the food has already been significantly broken down allowing for better intestinal transi. ...Read more

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What are the unique situations that allow salmonella to contaminate eggs?

What are the unique situations that allow salmonella to contaminate eggs?

Infected ovaries: In chickens, salmonella infection can localize to the ovaries and upper oviduct tissue and can be transmitted to the forming egg before shell deposition, resulting in contamination of the Albumin and yolk. Cooking the eggs until all liquid yolk is solidified kills the salmonella enteritidis. ...Read more

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We are taught that the immune system recognizes self from non-self but do the non-self stomach bacteria that live in harmony with us count as well?

We are taught that the immune system recognizes self from non-self but do the non-self stomach bacteria that live in harmony with us count as well?

Simplistic idea: To answer this question would require a textbook-length treatise on all of biology. Our immune system can attack us and be evaded by enemies. Helicobacter hardly lives in harmony with us in the stomach, but the intestinal bacteria are physically remote from places that the cells and antibodies of our police force can go, and live happily with us. ...Read more

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If cooking denatures protein and makes the protein not effective, while raw food contains germs and bacteria, so what should we do?

If cooking denatures protein and makes the protein not effective, while raw food contains germs and bacteria, so what should we do?

Cooking protein: You must cook protein. Denaturing is not a detriment to nutrition.Excellent proteins ---- Egg white is superior to all. Quinoa is excellent. Beans and lentils are excellent. Milk protein is excellent. Whole grains are good but not sufficient. Nuts are excellent. Yogurt is excellent ...Read more

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What kinds of healthy food that helps students studying and strengthen their memory and make them more amenable to accommodate their school lessons?

What kinds of healthy food that helps students studying and strengthen their memory and make them more amenable to accommodate their school lessons?

I'd love to know: Hard to say, but the mediterranean diet seems healthy and protects against many eventual problems, such as heart disease and stroke. Would avoid junk foods, sugars, candy, soft drinks of any kind, but maybe increase lean protein, and encourage exercise and avoidance of smoking, alcohol, and recreational drugs. ...Read more

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How is it that people living with hiv/aids should tell their employers about their infection?

How is it that people living with hiv/aids should tell their employers about their infection?

Depends on situation: In my opinion, the decision to disclose HIV status to an employer is up to the patient. However, i think this is a case by case basis. If an HIV positive individual is working in the food industry, then it may be prudent to disclose HIV in the event of a cut when preparing food to others. But if just working a desk job, it may not be necessary to disclose as chances are less likely to get hiv. ...Read more

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Can people get diabetes because the food that they eat or their unhealthy lifestyle or because genetic?

Can people get diabetes because the food that they eat or their unhealthy lifestyle or because genetic?

All if the above: Most patients with type 2 diabetes have a family history of it. The genetic predisposition manifests itself in the presence of poor diet and unhealthy lifestyle. ...Read more

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Is it true that cooking vegetables makes them lose their nutrients?

Is it true that cooking vegetables makes them lose their nutrients?

No: Folic acid is unstable when heated, but the 39 other essential nutrients are fairly stable at cooking temperatures. Of course, vegetables are poor sources of the 13 vitamins and protein, compared to meat. ...Read more

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Can there be any process that filters foreign foods and their accuracy in nutrition facts?

Can there be any process that filters foreign foods and their accuracy in nutrition facts?

None: The us has labeling requirements that imported food is required to meet. But there is precious little enforcement. Most foreign foods only get evaluated when harm is detected which is after the fact. ...Read more

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Foods that allow microorganisms to grow are called?

Foods that allow microorganisms to grow are called?

Nutrients: All living things require sources of energy and building blocks for proteins, nucleic acids, etc. ...Read more

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We often carry babies upright, it's natural for our mouth to be very near to their ears and we talk to them regularly. Can that harm their hearings?

We often carry babies upright, it's natural for our mouth to be very near to their ears and we talk to them regularly. Can that harm their hearings?

It's possible: Babies hearing is sensitive, it is possible to injure them from loud sounds close to their ears. Sound energy dissipates by the inverse square law, meaning that if you are 1/2 the distance, the sound energy is 4 times as much, so speak to them softly if you can. ...Read more

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Are people with (internal staff infections) allowed to work in food establishments?

Are people with (internal staff infections) allowed to work in food establishments?

Should be OK: An internal staph infection sounds like food poisoning. That won't pass from person to person as long as the infected person washes his hands after using the toilet. As long as the infection is being treated the person should be ok to work. ...Read more

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Are our bodies capable of fighting a flu virus on their own?

Are our bodies capable of fighting a flu virus on their own?

Most often - yes.: Most people make it through the flu without antivirals or other medications. ...Read more

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Are the companies that sell and advertise them responsible that so many people use cotton swabs to clean their ears?

Are the companies that sell and advertise them responsible that so many people use cotton swabs to clean their ears?

No: I would not blame the companies that make cotton swabs. They are useful to clean dirt in the crevices of the outer ear and behind the outer ear. If you are attempting to clean wax out by inserting a q-tip into the ear canal, then it is your responsibility to abstain from using them in the ear canal. Also, teach your children not to use them to clean out wax. Ent docs will give you advice. ...Read more

Dr. Heidi Fowler
3,518 doctors shared insights

Nutrition (Definition)

Nutrition is the synergistic combination of nutrients found in food and water that allows the human body to perform all essential ...Read more