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Doctor insights on: Noradrenaline Vs Adrenaline Receptors

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Why does acetylcholine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, cause the adrenal glands to release stimulatory hormones?

Why does acetylcholine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, cause the adrenal glands to release stimulatory hormones?

Not correct: Hi. Acetyl choline (ACh) is not an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The sympathetic nervous system uses ACh as the neurotransmitter in the sympathetic ganglia (the 1st synapse outside the CNS). Usually that's from one neuron to another, but in the adrenal medulla, the cells are really the second neuron, but they release their contents (catecholamines) into the blood, not onto an organ (like the heart) ...Read more

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Receptor (Definition)

An organ, cell or molecule that accepts an outside signal and causes an internal change. Eyes receive light, touch receptors send messages to the brain when stimulated by pressure and estrogen receptors bind Estradiol causing responses of normal breast, ovary and uterus cells to rising and falling levels of the female steroid hormones. Most of the time "receptor" refers to one ...Read more


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Is dopamine similar to dobutamine?

Is dopamine similar to dobutamine?

Yes and no: They are both catecholamines, a specific type of chemical class. In the body, there are different type of receptors in tissues which bind catechols with different effects. Dopamine and doubtamine have different affinities for different receptors and thus can have different effects. Kind of like different types of baking sugars...They are all sugars but are used for special purposes and functions. ...Read more

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Does triavil block dopamine receptors in the central nervous system?

Does triavil block dopamine receptors in the central nervous system?

Yes: Triavil is an old medicine that is not often used anymore. It's a combination of Amitriptyline and perphenazine. The latter is a neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medication that mainly acts by blocking Dopamine receptors in the brain. ...Read more

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Is histamine excitatory or inhibitory?

Is histamine excitatory or inhibitory?

Excitatory: Histamine is actually classified as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain responsible for the sleep wake cycle. Too much of it can keep you awake. That is why it is used in many commercial sleep aides seen with the letters "pm" attached to some kind of pain killer. A common side-effect of a histamine blocker like Diphenhydramine (benadryl) is drowsiness. ...Read more

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Do norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors suppress growth of brain?

Do norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors suppress growth of brain?

No: At this time, there is no evidence to suggest this. As one may imagine, few if any studies have been performed in humans to look for this. ...Read more

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What adrenergic receptors does vasopressin bind to?

What adrenergic receptors does vasopressin bind to?

It doesn't: Hi. Vasopressin (aka antidiuretic hormone) does not bind to adrenergic receptors. Vasopression has its own family of receptors expressed in the vasculature and kidneys. ...Read more

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Does coffee affects the levels of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine ?

Does coffee affects the levels of serotonin,  noradrenaline and dopamine ?

Yes: The caffeine in coffee blocks Adenosine receptors, which when activated make you tired and sleepy. This blockade also affects all major neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin -- and in high doses, norepinephrine too. Dopamine effects are not in the exact same regions of the brain that other addictive substances affect, though. ...Read more

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Glutamine excitatory or inhbitory?

Glutamine excitatory or inhbitory?

Both, indirectly: Glutamine is a major precursor of glutamate, the most potent excitatory neurotransmitter, & of gaba (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains. ...Read more

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What are the differences between levophed, (norepinephrine) dopamine and dobutamine?

What are the differences between levophed, (norepinephrine) dopamine and dobutamine?

Receptors: These three medications are used to support the heart and cardiovascular system ie. blood pressure and heart rate. They are known as sympathomimetics and have a similar response to what you would think of as adrenaline. Each has variable effect on either heart rate, heart function (in terms of strength of 'squeeze') and on blood vessels which would translate to higher blood pressure. ...Read more

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Difference between adrenaline and racemic epinephrine?

Difference between adrenaline and racemic epinephrine?

The form it comes in: Adrenaline is the chemical. Racemic epi is epi in an aerosol diluted form to deliver into the lungs to function as a bronchodilator and treats bronchial constriction, like in asthma or after removing an endo tracheal tube after surgery. It is a sympathetic (adrenaline) drug that leads to dilating the bronchial tubes. ...Read more

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Molecular action of adrenaline on cardiac contraction?

Molecular action of adrenaline on cardiac contraction?

Epinephrine: It is a direct beta receptor stimulant and increases contractility. It also has Alpha stimulation and raises peripheral vascular resistance. ...Read more

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Can you explain the differences between levophed, (norepinephrine) dopamine, and dobutamine?

Alters physiology: These are very simple answers to a complex question. Levophed (norepinephrine) increases blood pressure; Dopamine increases heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac function (contractility); Dobutamine increases cardiac contractility and heart rate. ...Read more

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Only noradrenergic antidepressant works for me, does inderal (propranolol) acts negative on noradrenergic effects of antidepressant ?At vasomotor centers.Regards.

Only noradrenergic antidepressant works for me, does inderal (propranolol) acts negative on noradrenergic effects of antidepressant ?At vasomotor centers.Regards.

Venlafaxine: It's not the vasomotor centers that are important in antidepressant response; it's the neuron synapses in the brain. Effexor (venlafaxine) inhibits reuptake of both serotonin and ne. Inderal can suppress some of the physical symptoms of anxiety (rapid heart rate, sweaty palms, tremulousness, etc). Some on chronic (not intermittent or "prn") Inderal have had more depression. Not everyone. You should be okay. ...Read more

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What is norepinephrine? Another type of adrenaline?

What is norepinephrine? Another type of adrenaline?

Yes: Norepinephrine is epinephrine(adrenalin) minus one small chemical "side group". They are very similar, but do to the molecular difference, even though they do many of the same things, there are subtle differences in function, especially in regards to neurotransmission. ...Read more

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What are GABA antagonists that lead to gaba-a receptor up-regulation?

Not safe: GABA antagonists are not routinely prescribed for GABA A receptor upregulation. The main one flumazenil (clonazepam) is used for overdoses from benzodiazepines in an ER setting. It may cause withdrawal seizures. Your best bet is to detox and enter a drug tx program for alcohol or sedative-hypnotic dependence issues. ...Read more

Dr. Suzanne Galli
466 doctors shared insights

Adrenaline (Definition)

Adrenalin(e) / Epinephrine is the hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that speeds and strengths the heart, dilates the airways, and shifts blood flow to the muscles. Often this is in response ...Read more


Dr. Mohammad Shahzad
1,005 doctors shared insights

Epinephrine (Definition)

Epinephrine is a rhythm control agent which is a ...Read more