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Doctor insights on: Molecular Pharmacology Definition

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How to study for pharmacology?

Not sure of question: If you want to design, research or test drugs, you will have to go thru rigorous study usually ending with a PhD in pharmacology. If you just want some references, I recommend a text "Pharmacotherapy- a physiologic approach bi DiPiro, et al.
Good Luck ...Read more

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Pharmacology question - which drugs tend to have generics that may not be equal to the brand name drugs?

Pharmacology question - which drugs tend to have generics that may not be equal to the brand name drugs?

Some not all: Those drugs that have a very small difference between effectiveness and toxicity (narrow therapeutic window) are often the target of generic versus brand. Some drugs that fall into this category include warfarin, digoxin, and Phenytoin (extended release capsules). This "window" pertains to oral drugs not usually to injectables. ...Read more

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My pharmacology exam is near any tip to lesson phobia?

My pharmacology exam is near any tip to lesson phobia?

CBT: Seek a cognitive-behavioral therapist who specializes in phobias. One method they use is systematic desensitization which slowly and incrementally brings the person closer and closer to the thing they are afraid of in slow, graduated steps that help make the anxiety more tolerable. ...Read more

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Can you tell me about the pharmacology of tramadol, could someone help me out?

Can you tell me about the pharmacology of tramadol, could someone help me out?

Tramadol: Tramadol treats moderate to moderately severe pain. It is an atypical opiod analgesic. It binds to mu opioid receptors & inhibits re-uptake of serotonin/ norepinephrine. Tramadol is narcotic-like pain medication that will be classified as a Schedule IV substance by the DEA in the US effective on 18 August 2014. ...Read more

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How severe can become anxiety? Is pharmacology really necessary after several years of psychotherapy all alone?

How severe can become anxiety? Is pharmacology really necessary after several years of psychotherapy all alone?

It seems that you: Are not feeling that psychotherapy and medication are working well enough for you. Talk to your therapists about your concerns. You may need a different medication or a new psychotherapeutic approach. ...Read more

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Do occupational therapists have to under pharmacology?

Do occupational therapists have to under pharmacology?

Here's a sample...: ...Master of Science in Occupational Therapy Curriculum. See what you think. Ref: http://www. Utica. Edu/academic/gce/ot/curriculm. Cfm ...Read more

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Are there any p450 enzymes that act upon things like acetaminophen and nsaids? I'm really into pharmacology and pharmicokinetics. And take them.

Are there any p450 enzymes that act upon things like acetaminophen and nsaids? I'm really into pharmacology and pharmicokinetics. And take them.

Yes: Cytochrome p450 metabolism accounts for about 5% of the breakdown of acetaminophen, and produces the toxic compound napqi that is responsible for its toxic effect on the liver. Nsaids are hydroxylated by 2c8 & 2c9 in the liver as one of several paths before conversion to the glucuronide & excretion in the urine. ...Read more

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Can you help me with the pharmacological toxicology of 5 flurouracil?

See below: Other than topical preparations, 5-FU is a chemotherapeutic drug available by prescription only and often used with other drugs. You should discuss it with your doctor. You may consult this site for info.
http://www. Drugs. Com/sfx/fluorouracil-side-effects. Html ...Read more

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What are the current pharmacological treatments for siadh?

SIADH drug treatment: For information on drugs that treat siadh, please go to this link:
http://www. Webmd. Com/drugs/condition-624-siadh+syndrome. Aspx? Diseaseid=624;diseasename=siadh+syndrome. ...Read more

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What are some of the pharmacological treatments for osteoarthritis pain?

What are some of the pharmacological treatments for osteoarthritis pain?

NSAIDs: Maybe helpful. Also consider supplements like glucosamine/chondroitin. Lastly if not improving consider how platelet therapy or stem cells can be helpful for you. Check out Regenexx. Com ...Read more

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Has anyone recommended pharmacological extinction for alcoholism?

Has anyone recommended pharmacological extinction for alcoholism?

Doctors who know do: So called sinclair method is effective and I use it not only for problems with alcohol, but also with many other behaviors that needs to be changed, such as gambling, sex addiction, hair pulling and even cravings to food. It works only if not only the patient, but also the family understands the idea and instead of bugging the patient to stop drinking, helps to go along with the program. ...Read more

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What is the "non pharmacological "treatments of common cold?

What is the "non pharmacological "treatments of common cold?

Common cold: Tips: sore throat – gargle with warm salt water (1/2 tsp salt in 8 oz of water). Get strep test/culture if very sore. Congestion – saline nose drops or netti pot. For anti-inflammatory effect & mobilizing mucus- homemade chicken noodle soup. Hydrate- lots of water/clear broth/ add honey & a small amt. Of lemon juice to chamomile tea. Fever/ pain – Acetaminophen / nsaid’s rest! ...Read more

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Can you suggest a good non-pharmacological way to reduce blood pressure?

Can you suggest a good non-pharmacological way to reduce blood pressure?

Hypertension: You can try low salt diet and exercise, along with meditation and yoga but if you have more than a borderline hypertension, you're better off doing those and consulting and doctor for medication. If good control is obtained and you're sticking to the diet, exercise, etc. Can always try to back off the drugs at that point. ...Read more

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My 19 days old son gets periodical rash on all over his skin. No other symptoms are noted. Please mention pharmacological and non pharmacological Tx?

My 19 days old son gets periodical rash on all over his skin. No other symptoms are noted. Please mention pharmacological and non pharmacological Tx?

Normal?: Without seeing the rash it is impossible to tell; however, there are some "normal" rashes in newborns that go away without treatment. Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum (ETN) and baby acne are two such rashes that need no treatment and will resolve with some patience and time. To get an actual diagnosis, your baby will need to see the pediatrician who can examine the skin and then offer advice. ...Read more

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What are good pharmacological treatments for celiac disease?

None: There are no medications to treat celiac. The only treatment is avoidance of gluten. ...Read more

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Etomidate (tradenames, mode of action, phamacokinetics, pharmacological action, uses, side effects.), can you tell me this info?

Etomidate (tradenames, mode of action, phamacokinetics, pharmacological action, uses, side effects.), can you tell me this info?

Briefly: Etomidate=Amidate, hypnotic agent used in general anesthesia and brief sedation. It works by altering specific brain receptors (GABA). We use it when we need to have stable or increased heart rate and blood pressure at the beginning of anesthesia (a time when those things can drop quite a bit with other drugs). So, we use for people with certain heart disease, blood loss, trauma, critically ill ...Read more

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Does it make pharmacological sense to take 20mg fluoxetine 1 wk per month or better to take it daily for PMDD?

Does it make pharmacological sense to take 20mg fluoxetine 1 wk per month or better to take it daily for PMDD?

Daily: Fluoxetine is not effective if taken intermittently. It may take several weeks of daily dosing to reach a therapeutic blood level. Be sure to clarify directions with prescribing doctor. I hope this helps. ...Read more

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Are there any links between depression and the mechanism (pharmacological action) of isotretinoin in the body? If so, please elaborate on this topic:)

Are there any links between depression and the mechanism (pharmacological action) of isotretinoin in the body? If so, please elaborate on this topic:)

Many possibilities: Section 3.3 "biological plausibility" of the linked review paper by bremner et al, 2012:
http://www. Ncbi. Nlm. Nih. Gov/pmc/articles/pmc3276716/
retinoic acid via gene expression has a broad range of effects on the brain, all can lead to mood changes. Although the exact mechanism has not been worked out, bremner et al provides a concise summary of current understanding. ...Read more

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Shouldn't we avoid pharmacological treatment of drug induced liver disease?

Shouldn't we avoid pharmacological treatment of drug induced liver disease?

How?????: Liver is a complex organ, most of the time protects itself by detoxifying chemicals rarely fails, . Remarkable progress has been made in control of infections, b.P. Stroke, cancer, vas dis meta. Diseases etc by use of medications, prolonging life and virtually every drug could be hepato toxic and unavoidable. Watchful fda withdrawn several (duracet, ruzulin, pemolin etc) may be more to go. ...Read more

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What are some non-pharmacological therapies that I can use to relieve my lower back pain?

What are some non-pharmacological therapies that I can use to relieve my lower back pain?

Therapy: There is good evidence that acupuncture, exercise therapy, Behavioral therapy, spinal manipulation and Viniyoga (a type of yoga) are beneficial in chronic back pain. Be certain you see a physician to rule out possible serious causes of back pain (aka red flags). ...Read more

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What are the possible pharmacological basis of a patient's complain of non response to Sildenafil recommended for management of sexual dysfunction.

What are the possible pharmacological basis of a patient's complain of non response to Sildenafil recommended for management of sexual dysfunction.

Other illness: When a medication for erectile dysfunction doesn't work, assuming the person took the medication as directed, it may be because there are other medical illnesses. Diabetes, high blood pressure, alcohol dependence, or other medications interfering with the sildenafil. Discuss all of this with your treating physician to determine the cause, and you should be able to get this cleared up. ...Read more

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Besides reducing salt intake, exercise, and massage, what pharmacological treatments other than diuretics, may be helpful for facial edema?

Besides reducing salt intake, exercise, and massage, what pharmacological treatments other than diuretics, may be helpful for facial edema?

Facial Edema: Causes of facial edema: allergic reactions,
angioedema,
blood transfusion reaction,
cellulitis,
conjunctivitis (inflammation of the eye),
drug reactions, including those due to aspirin, penicillin, sulfa, glucocorticoids, and others,
head, nose, or jaw surgery,
injury or trauma to the face (such as a burn),
malnutrition (when severe),
obesity,
salivary gland disorders,
sinusitis. ...Read more

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In retinal detachment surgery, how far are we from finding a pharmacological cure for / preventative agent against proliferative vitreoretinopathy?

In retinal detachment surgery, how far are we from finding a pharmacological cure for / preventative agent against proliferative vitreoretinopathy?

Decades if ever. Why: Because humans=Hi-Tech, medical system=Low-Tech & issues=complex. Study: https://en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/Proliferative_vitreoretinopathy & http://goo. Gl/Blh6rW & http://goo. Gl/44sPmg for perspective. The pharma industry (crucial to many easy to use advances) looks for single molecules which interact with our fantastic complexity for more benefit than harm, though later always easier & more common. ...Read more

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What is the pharmacological mechanism of action of lithium carbonate when used to treat bipolar disorder?

What is the pharmacological mechanism of action of lithium carbonate when used to treat bipolar disorder?

Unknown: The exact mechanism is not fully understood. It effects sodium transport in nerve cells and may have effects on several neurotransmitters, most notably glutamate and serotonin. It is the most effective agent for mood stability, but may have effects on thyroid and kidneys after many years of continuous use. ...Read more

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Do you think pathologies have increased in number/form after the development of modern pharmachology? After all meds create many free radicals.

Do you think pathologies have increased in number/form after the development of modern pharmachology? After all meds create many free radicals.

No: There have always been more pathologies (disorders) than doctors could take care of, and there always will be. We are an imperfect species in an imperfect world. At first, we take care of the pathologies that are very bad and/or the ones that are very easy to treat. Then we go after the other pathologies. Existing diseases sometimes are cured, but new ones do get created, either by man or nature. ...Read more

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What is the definition of shock?

What is the definition of shock?

Supply & demand: Shock occurs when blood flow isn't enough to meet the body's energy needs. Usually, the blood pressure and/or output of the heart is low-the tissues of the body don't get enough oxygen due to inadequate blood flow/perfusion. Sometimes, if the energy requirements of the body are high (hypermetabolic), then seemingly normal supply just isn't enough to meet the demand. ...Read more

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