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Doctor insights on: Mechanism Of Hepatic Encephalopathy

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What is the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy?

What is the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy?

Toxins in bloodstrea: Bacteria in the colon release toxins as part of their normal digestion of nutrients. Typically a normal functioning liver can handle that. When someone has cirrhosis and the liver doesn't work normally those toxins can build up and get into the brain to cause the sleepiness/confusion of hepatic encephalopathy. That is why we use drugs like lactulose for diarrhea to clear the colon. ...Read more

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Dr. Michael DePietro
139 doctors shared insights

Encephalopathy (Definition)

Encephalon means brain, pathy means abnormal, so the full term means abnormal brain. I see the statement used by many of my colleagues, but it is not a diagnosis, ...Read more


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Whats the difference between hepatic encephalopathy and portosystemic encephalopathy?

Whats the difference between hepatic encephalopathy and portosystemic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalop: These are essentially the same. Portosystemic encephalopathy may occur in fulminant hepatitis caused by viruses, drugs, or toxins, but it more commonly occurs in cirrhosis or other chronic disorders when extensive portosystemic collaterals have developed as a result of portal hypertension due to the changes in the liver structure. It may also occur after portocaval shunts. ...Read more

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What is hepatic encephalopathy?

What is hepatic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalopat: Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition of confusion or altered alertness due to inhibition of brain function. It is believed that this is related to insufficient metabolism of the liver and build up of chemicals that can be transmitted to the brain by the blood stream. In some cases, an elevated blood ammonia level correlates with this condition, but not always, and the role of ammonia is debated. ...Read more

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What are the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy?

What are the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy?

Encephalopathy: Symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy may be mild at first then become severe. Mild symptoms may include mood changes, mild confusion, forgetfulness, and changes in sleep, while more severe symptoms may include agitation, disorientation or severe confusion, abnormal movements, sleepiness, and slurred speech. Patients may progress to coma and death in the most severe cases. ...Read more

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Pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis?

Pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis?

See below: Scar tissue in the liver as a result of different kinds of injuries. The significance is related to the chronicity for the injury and especially whether the injury is ongoing. ...Read more

Dr. Alan Ali Dr. Ali
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How does brain dysfunction occur in patient with hepatic encephalopathy?

Dr. Alan Ali Dr. Ali
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How does brain dysfunction occur in patient with hepatic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalopat: Nitrogenous waste products accumulate in the systemic circulation, such as Ammonia, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is absorbed by brain cells which use ammonia to form Glutamine, which cause swelling of brain cells. ...Read more

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Can echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma is borderline mild mean auto immune hepatitis?

Can echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma is borderline mild mean auto immune hepatitis?

Fatty liver likely: Lots of substances may "infiltrate" the liver & increase echogenicity (sound waves bounce off liver better). Fatty liver is most common--due to diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, drinking too much alcohol. Lose weight & stop alcohol consumption if these are your problems. Fatty liver with abnormal liver functions (blood tests) is however considerably more concerning than just an echogenic liver. ...Read more

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What are the causes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy?

What are the causes of  hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy?

Lack of oxygen/blood: Hypoxic-ischemic encepahalopathy is caused by a lack of oxygen and blood flow. This can occur around the time of birth, for example, from compression of the umbilical cord, or throughout life for example from cardiac arrest. ...Read more

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What causes the development of spongiform encephalopathy?

What causes the development of spongiform encephalopathy?

Prions: Prions are small abnormal proteins that can be transmitted by eating certain types of foods which usually contain parts of the central nervous system (i.e. The brain). The prions cause a reaction in the brain of the consumer which affect other normal proteins which leads to brain damage and progressive neuro-degeneration. ...Read more

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What is best anticonvulsant in ptn. With hepatic encephalopathy?

What is best anticonvulsant in ptn. With hepatic encephalopathy?

??PTN: I don't know what you mean by ptn. However, hepatic encephalopathy generally refers to the confusion that patients with cirrhosis develop. The sick liver is unable to clear toxins which then affect the brain. The patient will experience memory difficulties, difficulty with sleep, alterations in personality, and at its worse, it can cause coma. ...Read more

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What does diffuse infiltration of liver with diffusely coarsened echotexture of of the liver parenchyma that can reflect diffuse hepatocellular diseas?

What does diffuse infiltration of liver with diffusely coarsened echotexture of of the liver parenchyma that can reflect diffuse hepatocellular diseas?

Fatty liver: infiltration is a precursor of liver damage and cirrhosis. May be related to alcohol abuse and elevated cholesterol and triglycerides. Any bacterial or viral infection can also cause liver dysfunction. ...Read more

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Are there different levels of hepatic encephalopathy? Is the condition reversible if liver transplant is ruled out?

Are there different levels of hepatic encephalopathy? Is the condition reversible if liver transplant is ruled out?

Yes: There are 5 stages of hepatic encephalopqthy. It is treatable even if transplant not an option. Ask the transplant hepatolgist (the liver doc) to help with this problem. ...Read more

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Describe the features of biliary cirrhosis.?

Describe the features of biliary cirrhosis.?

Liver failure: There are many things that happen with cirrhosis, depending on how severe it is. These include confusion, bleeding from the GI tract, jaundice, fluid buildup in the belly, increased risk for liver cancer, and other symptoms. ...Read more

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What is the survival rate of spongiform encephalopathy?

Very poor: Spongiform encephalopathies usually result in death within one year of onset of symptoms. ...Read more

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Describe the disorder called brain dysfunction (encephalopathy).?

Describe the disorder called brain dysfunction (encephalopathy).?

Delirium: Encephalopathy refers to symptoms related to the brains higher cognitive or thinking functions. This means people have altered levels of consciousness ( lethargic or even comatose to agitated and restless) they are often confused, may have hallucinations, . It is a consequence of a large # of possible problems from infections, drug side effects, to things like kidney or liver failure. ...Read more

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What is the biochemical mechanism of lactic acidosis in diabetes?

What is the biochemical mechanism of lactic acidosis in diabetes?

Lactic acidosis: Please go online to "www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/" and look up lactic acidosis and diabetes. It won't be easy reading but worth a look. You can also go to PubMed and search for lactic acidosis and diabetes. Take your time learning about this. ...Read more

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What is the extent of brain atrophy associated with alcohol abusers?

What is the extent of brain atrophy associated with alcohol abusers?

It depends: This depends on the amount of alcohol used, frequency of use, and period of time involved. Also important are other accompanying diseases the alcoholic might have, such as liver dysfunction. Frontal cortex atrophy is frequently seen, and impacts judgment and executive cognitive function. In long term alcohol abuse, one can see cerebellar atrophy also -- leading to uncoordinated movements. ...Read more

Dr. Jay Park Dr. Park
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Meaning of neonatal jaundice? Heard brain damage.

Dr. Jay Park Dr. Park
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Meaning of neonatal jaundice? Heard brain damage.

Rarely: Jaundice caused by high level of bilirubin in blood can lead to brain damage by compromising the integrity of neuronal cells. Infants with hemolytic disease, e.g., ABO incompatiblity, are at higher risk. Extreme preemies are also at high risk even with modestly elevated bilirubin level. ...Read more

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Has anyone survived hepatic encephalopathy?

Sure !: The encephalopathy can be treated by the treatment of liver failure and depeding on the cause and the state of the disorder can be reversed. ...Read more

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What are the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy?

Encephalopathy: Symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy may be mild at first then become severe. Mild symptoms may include mood changes, mild confusion, forgetfulness, and changes in sleep, while more severe symptoms may include agitation, disorientation or severe confusion, abnormal movements, sleepiness, and slurred speech. Patients may progress to coma and death in the most severe cases. ...Read more

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What is hepatic encephalopathy and how bad is it?

HEPATIC ENCEPHALPATH: Hepatic encephalopathy is another description of hepatic coma and it is very very serious condition and can be fatal.It is caused by liver failure due to chronic liver disease, commonest of that is alcoholic cirrhosis. ...Read more

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Diet for hepatic encephalopathy with diabetes?

Difficult: Low protein, low simple carb is the simplest answer but you really need to get training from a specialized dietician. ...Read more

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Can bloodletting help someone with hepatic encephalopathy?

Can bloodletting help someone with hepatic encephalopathy?

No. (?): "Bloodletting" refers to the ancient and long-discredited practice of bleeding someone to remove "evil humors" (another long-outdated concept). "Therapeutic phlebotomy" is used to treat diseases that cause overproduction of red blood cells or their constituents eg hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda. It is NOT indicated for hepatic encephalopathy. ...Read more

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What is the difference between uremia and hepatic encephalopathy?

See below: Both can cause Metabolic Encephalopathies, or brain dysfunction. Uremia due to kidney failure, hepatitis due to liver failure. The pathways and toxicity are respectively different but the net effect on brain may be very similar. Clinicians can easily distinguish the two entities. ...Read more

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Hospitalised with hepatic encephalopathy and now at home..Can we still take warafin?

See hepatologist: If you have hepatic encephalopathy, it would suggest that there is significant liver damage. Since the liver is the source of proteins that allow you to stop bleeding, and Coumadin (warfarin) is used to block the production of these proteins too, the combination is very risky to adjust. Make sure that someone with expertise in managing anticoagulation is aware of cirrhosis and monitors closely. ...Read more

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Whats the difference between hepatic encephalopathy and portosystemic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalop: These are essentially the same. Portosystemic encephalopathy may occur in fulminant hepatitis caused by viruses, drugs, or toxins, but it more commonly occurs in cirrhosis or other chronic disorders when extensive portosystemic collaterals have developed as a result of portal hypertension due to the changes in the liver structure. It may also occur after portocaval shunts. ...Read more

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What is the treatment for hepatic encephalopathy?

Underlying cause: The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy is three fold: 1) treat underlying cause of liver injury if possible ( so stop liver toxic drugs, steroids for autoimmune liver disease) 2) in patients with chronic liver disease, treat problems that can worsen the situation and cause encephalopathy such as infections, etc. 3) drugs to lower the ammonia levels, ammonia being too high in this condition. ...Read more

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What is hepatic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalopat: Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition of confusion or altered alertness due to inhibition of brain function. It is believed that this is related to insufficient metabolism of the liver and build up of chemicals that can be transmitted to the brain by the blood stream. In some cases, an elevated blood ammonia level correlates with this condition, but not always, and the role of ammonia is debated. ...Read more

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What is the rationale for hepatic encephalopathy?

Liver failure: Liver failure in metabolism of toxic chemicals in particular ammonia and the effect of these substances in the brain cause disturbance of brain function (encephalopathy). ...Read more

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How long can a person live with hepatic encephalopathy?

Hepatic enceph: Treatment of the cause of hepatic encephlopathy and symptomatic managemenr of the encephalopathy will help. Please call your hepatologist for specific qquestions. ...Read more

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What may be the cause for hepatic encephalopathy in women?

Liver disease: Hepatic encephalopathy is always caused by severe liver malfunction. There are a large number of causes, including liver damage from viruses ( hepatitis) toxins, tylenol (acetaminophen) overdose, alcohol abuse, and even autoimmune diseases. There are other less common causes of liver injury as well. ...Read more

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What is the definition or description of: hepatic encephalopathy?

Altered mental statu: Disturbance of consciousness from confusion to coma as a result of liver failure usually due to high levels of serum ammonia. ...Read more

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I think my husband may have hepatic encephalopathy. What can they do?

Treat liver: Treatment involves treating the underlying liver disease, treat other problems that can make the problem worse such as infection, and medications to lower ammonia levels, ammonia being one the the toxins the damaged liver does not handle well. ...Read more

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What does hepatic encephalopathy grade2 mean and what are the consequences?

Variable: Hepatic encephalopathy (he) grade 2 usually infers lethargy or apathy; minimal disorientation for time or place; subtle personality change; inappropriate behavior. However, many things can change that, making it worse or better. Medications, such as lactulose or rifaximin, are used to treat he, and dietary indiscretion as well as infection or worsening liver function will make he worse. ...Read more

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Has anyone been around a person with hepatic encephalopathy? How bad are they?

Has anyone been around a person with hepatic encephalopathy? How bad are they?

Mild to severe: Encephalopathy is a generalized description of an altered mental state that is caused by a medical condition. This is seen as confusion, agitation, lethargy, and/or severe somnolence. It is commonly seen in patients with cirrhosis (hepatic encephalopathy). The severity can range from very mild, almost unnoticeable, to complete unconsciousness. ...Read more

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What is the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy?

Toxins in bloodstrea: Bacteria in the colon release toxins as part of their normal digestion of nutrients. Typically a normal functioning liver can handle that. When someone has cirrhosis and the liver doesn't work normally those toxins can build up and get into the brain to cause the sleepiness/confusion of hepatic encephalopathy. That is why we use drugs like lactulose for diarrhea to clear the colon. ...Read more

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Dr. Robert Rahimi
56 doctors shared insights

Hepatic Encephalopathy (Definition)

A condition in which liver failure causes symptoms ranging ...Read more


Hepatic (Definition)

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