Doctor insights on:
A picture of pelvis: It is an X-ray picture with dye of the pelvis of the kidneys, either from above or below. From above, dye is infused IV and filtered into kidneys (iv pyelogram) then goes to pelvis of kidneys which is the funnel connection bet a kidney and a ureter. From below means a urologist injects a dye upwards the ureter using a scope then takes the picture (ascending pyelogram). It shows stones or tumors. ...Read more
It depends what kind: Of atypia you are referring to. Is this a breast biopsy? Broadly speaking, atypical cells have some of the histologic features of cancer but not enough to be cancer. Atypia is usually considered to be an indicator of an increased risk of cancer, some consider atypia to be a precursor to cancer. If atypia is found on a needle biopsy, a percentage of those get upgraded to carcinoma on excision ...Read more
Low: Z score compares your bone density to the average of your age group. If it is a positive number, you have above average bone density. If negative, below. The actual number represents the "standard deviations" from the mean, how far away from average you are. For -2.6, it means that you are approximately in the lower 3% for bone density for your age. That is, 97% have higher bone density than u ...Read more
General Practice: A general practice physician can get his/her medical license after serving a 1 year, often rotating, internship. They provide primary care to families, from preventive exams to picking up early on illness. They have to be sharp in many areas to know when to do additional diagnostic tests, etc. Also they're courageous to keep up with so much, and humble enough to refer for more specialized care. ...Read more
It means: That the blood is clumping. See: http://www. Medicine. Mcgill. Ca/physio/vlab/bloodlab/abo_n.htm ...Read more
Av Glucose 143 mg/dL: According to this research: http://care. Diabetesjournals. Org/content/26/3/881.short. Or http://www. Medscape. Com/viewarticle/427799. In human trials, an optimal HbA1c [for lowest rates of cardiovascular events (heart attacks, etc.) for middle age "normal/asymptomatic" people with zero history of health problems] within 5 years is 5.0%, corresponding to an average blood glucose of 100 mg/dL. ...Read more
When told anaphylaxis is rare what does that mean exactly? How rare of an occurance is it? Like 1:100 or 1:1000 etc etc
50/100k person-years: In a mayo clinic study, a total of 211 cases were identified from 1990 through 2000, which yielded an adjusted incidence rate of 50 cases per 100, 000 person-years in general population - this rate is variable with different medications. ...Read more
When I got my huntington's disease test results back I was told it came back positive with 42 cag repeats. What does that mean exactly?
Huntington Gene: In the gene which is abnormal in huntington's disease, there is an increased amount of repeats of the nucleotides cag. Normal people also have repeats in this gene but huntington's patients have an increased number. Depending on the laboratory who does the tests, anything above 30 or 32 is considered abnormal. At 42 repeats, this is consistent with a diagnosis of huntington's. ...Read more
My hydroxyproline is 93 which is twice the value it should be. I have severe osteoporosis. What does this score mean exactly, thank you?
See below: All joints have different types of movement. For instance, the elbow has only the ability to flex and extend. To flex the elbow, you bring the hand close to the shoulder. To extend the elbow, you straighten it out again. Flexing the hip brings the knee close to the belly, extending the hip straightens the leg out. Hope that helps. ...Read more
On my 36 weeks scan it says baby is in Presentation Cephalic 1. What does it mean exactly? Is baby engaged already?
The head is down: The baby's head is facing down in your pelvis. ...Read more
What does having a front left 2 CM paraspinal mass mean exactly and should I worry about this? I've had COPD for years now.
No: You can take it every 11 1/2 hours if you want. The way the drug is metabolized, its a recommendation to take it every 12 hours. Depends on the drug, also, and why you are taking it. Consult with your doctor or a pharmacist depending on the drug and the reason you are taking it. ...Read more
Need MD follow-up: Long-term treatment for asthma includes the use of an inhaler, most often containing a steroid (like cortisol); medicines that reduce the amount of spasm of airways (like Singulair), a "rescue inhaler" like albuterol whenever you are going to do strenuous exercise or be exposed to dust or mold, and very aggressive treatment of respiratory infections often with steroids. Need doctor management. ...Read more
The science of the causes and effects of diseases, esp. The branch of medicine that deals with the laboratory examination of samples of body tissue for diagnostic or forensic purposes.
• Medicine pathological features considered collectively; the typical behavior of a disease: the pathology of Huntington's disease. ...Read more
Emphysema.: Emphysema is a destruction of lung tissue with resultant reduction in oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange and respiratory effort. It's usually due to smoking but could be due to other medial conditions. It's treatable but not curable. The absence of acute airspace disease means there’s nothing like a pneumonia or fluid overload superimposed atop the chronic issue (emphysema). ...Read more
Recent stress test shows mild ischemia anterobasally and distal apical laterally. What does it mean exactly?
Arterial blockage.: Ischemia in areas of the heart, as you have related, infers that the arteries that feed these parts of the heart are narrowed such that blood flow through them reduces with exertion. It means these areas of the heart are vulnerable and further testing is needed and intervention may be necessary. ...Read more
There may be a reduplication anomaly in the left upper urinary tract. What would this mean exactly? Our paed could not explain
Normal variant: A standard urinary tract has 1 collecting system and 1 ureter per kidney. Some systems may have 2 collecting systems and 2 complete ureters per kidney (complete duplication) or 2 upper ureters connecting to 1 ureter per kidney (a partial duplication). These are normal variants but can be associated with urinary reflux or obstruction, which can, in turn, be associated with utis. ...Read more
Hsv early antibodies can appear in few weeks. "aged and mature" antibodies can take up to 24 months what does "aged/mature" antibodies mean exactly?
IgM/ IgG: When you first get an infection, igm antibodies form. This is indicative of an acute process. Over time igg antibodies form that show that you have been exposed in the past. This would be your aged or mature antibodies. ...Read more
More workup: Currently, it points to hyperthyroidism but you need to complete the work up to know for sure. At the very least, I would repeat the TSH along with the free hormones T4 and t3 (liothyronine). If they also point to hyperthyroidism, then proceed further to find the exact cause for this. Tsh alone does not give you a complete picture. ...Read more
Prediabetic: Doctors follow rules. The diagnosis of diabets is made as follows: the national diabetes data group recommendation that the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus be based on two fasting plasma glucose levels of 126 mg per dl (7.0 mmol per l) or higher. Other options for diagnosis include two two-hour postprandial plasma of 200 mg per dl. You are not noremal but not yet a daibetic. ...Read more
My ECG report says 'sinus rhythm r-s transition zone in v leads displaced to the right. What does that mean exactly?
Nothing: It is a description of the ectrical orientation of the hearts excitation and by in itself means nothing. ...Read more
Would a massage help with myoclonus? What does it mean exactly about the muscle? Are they tense or weak? Please help dr.
Go get evaluation: If you really have myoclonus, it has to be evaluated. It is not the muscles that is a concern but rather the nerves that control those muscle movements starting from the spine to the brain. It is hard to make a diagnosis without proper exam and observation. Focal seizures can cause such activities and have to be evaluated as well. Good luck. ...Read more
What does airborne angioedema and oesophagitis triggered by exposure to respiratory irritants mean exactly? What is the mechanism?
Allergic Esophagitis: Irritants are not allergens, so you could be talking about cigarette smoke causing esophagitis, which it does, in smokers. Or you could be wondering about eosinophilic esophagitis, where food or inhalant allergens trigger inflammation of the esophagus. Both conditions are helped by avoidance of the triggers; EoE is also helped by swallowing steroid slushes and immunotherapy. Your wording confuses ...Read more
Ectopic surgery 11mths ago. Surgeon said on the inside was messy n stick together as tho I have some type of disease, what does that mean exactly?
Ectopic: The problem is "exactly" because it doesn't mean exactly anything. It's like describing a photograph or a painting. Your surgeon probably meant either 1) the ectopic had damaged your tube, or 2) it looked like the tube had been damaged previously. He/she (the surgeon) is the only who can tell you that. Good luck! ...Read more
Birads 0 with no signs or symptom of cancer on mammogram means incomplete meaning the mammogram was done incorrectly? Or what does it mean exactly?
Incomplete: It means that the mammographic evaluation is incomplete based on the screening exam. The radiologist has identified a potential abnormality that requires special extra views, and possibly ultrasound, to completely evaluate and render a final diagnosis. Many times it turns out to be nothing, sometimes it is something that needs a biopsy. ...Read more
Saw rhumy for app.2. Sojourn ANA positive but not high. Lots of mixed symptoms. Starting plaquanil what does this mean exactly? Worst case and best
Had transvaginial ultrasound for suspected cyst. Result says a 1.9x2cm anechoic structure is seen thought to be cyst. What does this mean exactly?
Without echoes: Anechoic means without echoes. In other words, it is fluid-filled as opposed to solid. This fits sonographic criteria for a cyst. Simple cysts are typically benign. Is this ovarian? ...Read more
One factor in decay: There is a genetic factor in tooth decay. But if you have a good healthy habit that is low in sugars, brush and floss, and have regular dental care you will be able to keep you teeth healthy. ...Read more
Plaque: Usuly means build. Up of cholesterol in the arteries. While this is not good not every blocked artrry needs to be opened since the body can sometimes compensate. Generally. Medical treatment os recommended unless the blockage is critical (left main coronary) or you are having chest pain that cant be controlled Key is. This. Is.a warning and you need to rwduce your risk diet exercise no smoking ...Read more
If tested for HSV 1 & 2 and HSV 1 was "indeterminate" what does that mean exactly? (hsv 2 was negative). Never had cold sores ever.
Yes: It is good that your hsv2 is negative. Hsv1 will news to be retested in a few weeks to see if levels have risen to be positive. ...Read more
So HSV antibdies can take up to 2-3 months to appear in blood. "aged and mature" antibodies can take 24 months? What does that mean exactly?
Limited value: The blood tests for hsv are pretty good but not 100% unreliable, with a fair number of false-positive and false-negatives. If you have hsv clinically, you can be treated without blood work to "prove" it. I'm glad you're taking a proactive approach to your health, and good luck. ...Read more