Doctor insights on:
Excitatory: Histamine is actually classified as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain responsible for the sleep wake cycle. Too much of it can keep you awake. That is why it is used in many commercial sleep aides seen with the letters "pm" attached to some kind of pain killer. A common side-effect of a histamine blocker like Diphenhydramine (benadryl) is drowsiness. ...Read more
No: At this time, there is no evidence to suggest this. As one may imagine, few if any studies have been performed in humans to look for this. ...Read more
Just one type: "selective" in this case refers to the fact that the previous generation of antidepressants, the tricyclics, worked on all 3 of the neurotransmitters in the brain thought to be involved in depression in varying degrees; serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Prozac, (fluoxetine) and the other ssris act almost entirely on serotonin. ...Read more
Evidence says not: One meta-analysis* (a study pooling results from multiple other studies) suggested that reboxetine is ineffective & may be harmful. *(eyding d et.Al. "reboxetine for acute treatment of major depression: systematic review &meta-analysis of published &unpublished placebo &selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled trials."bmj. 2010; 341:c4737). ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Atomoxetine inhibits serotonin transporter, dopamine transporter and naroephinephrine. What does inhibit mean?
Strattera (atomoxetine): Inhibition is the opposite of stimulation, so the effectiveness is reduced. ...Read more
TCA/SSRI: Both are, depending on what they are prescribed for. The difference is in tolerability & side-effects. ...Read more
Most newer ones: Most of the newer antidepressant medications affect specific neurotransmitters. Each does it slightly differently, accounting for the different response rates amongst them. The SSRI's primarily increase serotonin, the SNRI's both serotonin and norepinephrine, and buproprion mostly norepinephrine alone, and Brintellix affects many of them in different ways and in different places in the brain. ...Read more
Yes. Great Question!: The Amino Acid glutamate plays a central role in nitrogen metabolism & participates in multiple biochemical pathways. Disease examples: autoantibodies to the glutamate receptor kill neurons via activation of the receptor ion channel. Anti-nmda receptor encephalitis is a treatment-responsive inflammatory encephalopathic autoimmune disease associated with anti-nmda receptor antibodies. ...Read more
Still unclear: We know what they do--block reuptake at the neuron. But, why that helps with depression and anxiety, among other disorders, remains unclear. Especially puzzling is why it typically takes weeks or even months to produce the effect, suggesting strongly that it is not the direct effect that causes improvement but some change that induces downstream. ...Read more
Why does acetylcholine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, cause the adrenal glands to release stimulatory hormones?
Neurotransmitters: Neurotransmitters are not easily classified into inhibitory and stimulatory. It depends on where they are acting. ...Read more
Not safe: GABA antagonists are not routinely prescribed for GABA A receptor upregulation. The main one flumazenil (clonazepam) is used for overdoses from benzodiazepines in an ER setting. It may cause withdrawal seizures. Your best bet is to detox and enter a drug tx program for alcohol or sedative-hypnotic dependence issues. ...Read more
Since there's deep brain stimulation that stimulate neurons, is there deep brain "inhibition" that inhibits neurons?
Yes: It is interesting that it is called " stimulation", in fact it inhibits the neuron depending upon the degree of stimulation applied. For example the involuntary movement of Parkinson's disease are controlled by "inhibition". Similarly " interstim" is the technique to stimulate to cause inhibition of bladder contractions to cure loss of urinaty control. The entire process is well understood. ...Read more
Can an antagonist (propranolol) cause an inhibitory effect via beta-adrenoreceptors in cardiac myocytes?
Beta blockers: Yes.Get a more detailed answer ›