Doctor insights on:
What is the immune response to clostridium botulinum, clostridium tetani or clostridium perfringes?
Do your homework: Your instructors will expect you to answer your homework questions from the assigned reading. The wording and jargon will be recognizable and you will be dinged if you do not.This information site is not set up to provide a shortcut for homework answers. ...Read more
In medicine, having an immunity to certain disease is to mean you are protected from getting it. For example: flu vaccination trigers the body to develop the immunity(antibody)/protection so that it won't get the flu. The idea is similar to the law: to provide immunity to someone is to protect that person from potential physical harm by other(s). Have ...Read more
Yes.: Studies have shown that probiotics can prevent c.Diff infections and other antibiotic associated complications like diarrhea. Best way to prevent c.Diff infections is good hand washing if you visit a hospital or nursing home. Also by not taking antibiotics for viral illnesses like bronchitis and sinusitis. You increase your risk of c. Diff when you take abx for things like these. ...Read moreSee 2 more doctor answers
Clostridium difficile toxin b gene present
clostridium dificile antigen presen. Would u no how severe the c diff is?
Have diarrhea or no?: C.Difficile is pathogenic in older children & adults (whose colonic microflora are altered by antibiotics, chemotherapy, salmonella/shigella). C.Diff causes diarrhea w/pseudomembranous & other colitis, complicates inflammatory bowel disease, causes fulminant transmural extension, perforation with peritonitis, toxic megacolon. Treatment, & confirmation of post-treatment eradication, is recommended. ...Read more
Yes but...: In neither conditions, recovery from the disease does not confer immunity because the toxin is usually not present in amount large enough to induce adequate immune response. ...Read more
Possibly: Introduced in the late 70's in japan, the current CP vaccine was not adopted in the us until the 90's. There are good data that one dose removes the risk of death with cp, but likely only 85% get protective immunity from 1 dose, with that improving to >95% after 2 doses given at least a month apart. Time will tell if future boosters are needed but with 30+ years of worldwide data it looks good. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Lack of normal bugs: C diff only get foot hold in the colon when normal bugs are killed off by antibiotics. ...Read more
Prevnar (pneumococcal vaccine) 13 vaccine has diphtheria proteins in it. Does Prevnar (pneumococcal vaccine) 13 vaccine protect against pneumococcus and diphtheria? Thank-you!
No: The diphtheria proteins used for PCV-13 (Prevnar) are not antigenic for diphtheria. That means they are not recognized by the body to produce an immune response. They just help carry the pneumococcal proteins into the appropriate cells to create the immune response for the pneumococcal bacteria. ...Read more
Unclear question: Immune system normally makes all types of antibodies in very small amounts. Vaccines increase the amount of antibodies to the antigens in the vaccine. ...Read more
Yes: Hiv mutates in response to HIV therapy. If you're being treated without a complete response (partial suppression), the virus can mutate so it can replicate in the presence of the drugs. This usually happens in people who don't take their medications properly. They can then transmit the mutant virus to others. Spontaneous mutation (mutation independent of therapy) has not been a big problem. ...Read more
Colitis: This organism causes colitis in patients given antibiotis. The antibiotics kill the normal flora in the colon and allow c diff to grow. It releases a toxin that causes necrosis and ulcers in the colon. The infection may be acquired in the hospital and sperad by hospital, on their hands, from one patient to another. ...Read more
Do inactivated rabies vaccines elicit cell mediated immunity(t-cells) aside from just antibody production?
Activated rabies vac: Yes. They activate dendritic cells and presumptively enhance immune function in that fashion. J virol 2011 feb; 85(4) :1634-44. ...Read more
BCG has been used : in attempts to vaccinate against leprosy but isn't that effective. More specific vaccines are in development. At this point, leprosy has consistently responded to multi-drug therapy which for multibacillary leprosy is usually Dapsone, Rifampicin & Clorazime. Other antibiotics can be used. This is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind and appears to remain steady in it's form. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Agree w Dr. Novick: Vaccine is in development at this time. Currently there have been no cases of leprosy which are resistant to multi-drug tx. Multi-drug therapy for multibacillary leprosy is usually Dapsone, Rifampicin & Clorazime. Other antibiotics can be used. Fewer antibiotics may be used for other forms of leprosy. Multi-drug therapy continues to be an effective treatment for leprosy. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer