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Doctor insights on: Illumina Methylation Array

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With bipolar ii, adhd, & c ptsd, what additional tests are beneficial? Ie: hormone, neurotransmitter , DNA mutation (mthfr, a1at ...) methylation etc.

Yes: I would definitely check mthfr and comt. Both these are involved in methylation. One is involved in neurotransmitter synthesis, and the other in breakdown. Therefore polymorphisms can impact mood, etc, and if so, vitamins and supplements can help the methylation cycle. I check mthfr in most of my patients. ...Read more

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Fibre length, overall signal attenuation for an optical link, coupling loss exam, what are these?

Fibre length, overall signal attenuation for an optical link, coupling loss exam, what are these?

Non-medical: These are terms out of fiber optic technology relating to the signal loss related to length of the fiber, loss jumping the gap between two fibers juxtaposed and loss from characteristics of the optical fiber. ...Read more

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Scientists test for alleles that cause human genetic disorders by what method?

Scientists test for alleles that cause human genetic disorders by what method?

Molecular Methods: Identifying alleles associated with disease can be done by numerous different methods depending on the type of genetic alteration. Gene sequencing is often the gold standard. However, for disease caused by deletion or insertion of a segment of DNA, a technique called Fluoresense In Situ Hybridization is used. For detection of single base pair changes numerous different techniques can be used ...Read more

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How do dna, mutation, genotype, phenotype, and natural selection interconnect to cause evolution?

How do dna, mutation, genotype, phenotype, and natural selection interconnect to cause evolution?

Modern synthesis: It's as well-established as anything in science, but would take more than 400 characters to explain. You owe it to yourself, as an educated person who must participate in community decision making, to understand it. There are a huge number of good books on the subject. Best wishes. ...Read more

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Is optos ultra-wide field retinal imaging more efficient than indirect ophthalmoscopy to see large details of the retina?

Is optos ultra-wide field retinal imaging more efficient than indirect ophthalmoscopy to see large details of the retina?

Efficiency-accuracy: Efficiency, speed, ease of use are attributes of optos, but detailed, high magnification ; dynamic indirect ophthalmoscopy by the eye md is better for careful discriminative diagnoses. Sorry, i don't want to be replaced (yet) by a camera! i've never been able to replace my careful examination of the retina with indirect ophthalmoscopy by an image, except by sd-oct which is excellent. ...Read more

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What are germline gene alterations?

What are germline gene alterations?

Inheritable: "germline" refers to genes that are present in every cell of the body from conception or shortly afterwards, including sperm/ ova, and thus can be passed down to offspring. This term is used to distinguish these types of inherited genetic mutations from those that are not inherited - not present in the dna of sperm or ova. ...Read more

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What ratio of pro-collagen molecules are abnormal in type 2 osteogenesis imperfecta?

What ratio of pro-collagen molecules are abnormal in type 2 osteogenesis imperfecta?

See below: Osteogenesis imperfecta (oi) is disorder of congenital bone fragility caused by mutations in the genes that codify for type i procollagen (ie, col1a1 and col1a2). ...Read more

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Which method of prenatal testing analyzes chromosomes?

Which method of prenatal testing analyzes chromosomes?

Invasive: The two methods for testing fetal chromosomes are chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. There is research on obtaining fetal dna from maternal blood, but that is not yet in widespread use. ...Read more

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Which diseases and disabilities are linked to chromosome 17?

Which diseases and disabilities are linked to chromosome 17?

Unusual question: why do you want to know? Are you writing a homework assignment or has someone told you that you or someone you know has an abnormal chromosome 17? The answers come from the cytogeneticist who analyzed the chromosomes==not from a list of over a thousand genetic loci which might have mutations. ...Read more

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Sev. Dev. Delay -array comparative genetic hybridization (acgh) results indicate no abnormalities- would full genetic sequencing be advised (knome)?

Not necessarily: Newer genetic tests provide incite into a variety of issues like autism & other developmental variations.Yet causation remains elusive in many cases.Sadly, an injury to the developing brain centers from an unrecognized event in an otherwise normal pregnancy is a likely cause for many.This occurs in at least half of cerebral palsy cases & dev.Delay could be produced in others, yet hard to prove. ...Read more

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Can chromosomal microarray detect down syndrome? What's the difference between chromosomal microarray and the conventional karyotypying?

Can chromosomal microarray detect down syndrome? What's the difference between chromosomal microarray and the conventional karyotypying?

It may, depends: First step is conventional karyotyping, if the clinical suspicion present for Down syndrome, detection of an extra chromosome 21, or triploidy, instead of two. In 95% of Down syndrome it's diagnostic, but If it didn't detect and suspicion still there - next step could be a microarray, which designed to detect submicroscopic abnormalities not detected by regular karyotyping for the rest of 5% D-se ...Read more

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What are the causes of gene mutations in chromosone 4?

What are the causes of gene mutations in chromosone 4?

Luck: Mutations are usually luck based. Bad luck. Other non-genetic deformities are often genetic or environmental, but can also be bad luck too. ...Read more

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R there various types /grades of MRI scan ? Ie, simple or enhanced one?

Dr. Calvin Ma Dr. Ma
1 doctor agreed:
R there various types /grades of MRI scan ?
Ie, simple or enhanced one?

Yes: Yes, there are many types of MRI brain scans that can be done, depending on the clinical indication. Mri brain without contrast, MRI brain without and with contrast, mr angiography of the head, mr venography, MRI brain perfusion, to name a few. Some exams will include additional or advanced imaging sequences beyond the standard depending on clinical indication of exam. ...Read more

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Are binaural beats helpful in making new neural pathway connections in brain ?

Are binaural beats helpful in making new neural pathway connections in brain ?

No: Binaural beats have been studied for decades by neurophysiologists for clues to how the brain processes sensory input. Studies I've seen suggest that they MAY elicit transient alterations in some aspects of mood or cognition. I've seen NOTHING to substantiate the ludicrous claims made by the binaural-beat lunatic fringe on YouTube etc., whose enthusiasm far outstrips their understanding. ...Read more