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Doctor insights on: How Does The Upper Notor Neuron Lesion Cause The Babinski Sign

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How does the upper notor neuron lesion cause the babinski sign?

How does the upper notor neuron lesion cause the babinski sign?

Higher brain centers: Babies normally have babinski responses but lose it as they mature. The response remains deep in the brain and spinal cord but is suppressed by the higher brain centers. If the higher brain centers become damaged, these primitive responses return because they are no longer being suppressed. Hope this helps to simplify the prior excellent answer. ...Read more

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Neuron (Definition)

A neuron is a specialized cell that conducts impulses within the nervous system. It is made up of a cell body and processes including ...Read more


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Why does an upper motor neuron lesion cause a positive babinski sign?

Why does an upper motor neuron lesion cause a positive babinski sign?

Extensor respons: The presence of a Babinski sign suggests an upper motor neuron lesion, although in infants the presence of the dorsiflexion of the great toe with plantar stimulation can be normal. Simplifying, it's thought by some it may be related to the difference between the anatomical flexors behaving differently, more as extensors. Medicine Decoded has a reasonable explanation of this. ...Read more

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What are the symptoms and signs of the upper motor neuron lesion (cortex, internal capsule, brainstem, spinal cord) ?

What are the symptoms and signs of the upper motor neuron lesion (cortex, internal capsule, brainstem, spinal cord) ?

Variable, but: Typical results of a stroke affecting brainstem and rostral structures, could see focal weakness over unilateral arm and leg, with possible problem with speech. Spinal cord smaller area and maybe both legs and less commonly unilateral arm and leg. ...Read more

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What does the MRI mean when it mentions diffuse central canal narrowing from C3 through C6 levels which is likely congenital?

What does the MRI mean when it mentions diffuse central canal narrowing from C3 through C6 levels which is likely congenital?

You've always had it: "Congenital" means since birth. Diffuse central canal narrowing means that your spinal cord in the neck region doesn't have a lot of wiggle room. Unless you are having neurological symptoms or the report mentioned a critical stenosis or change in the cord signal, you should use the MRI as a reference scan. Otherwise see a neurologist. Ref: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/344171-overview#a21 ...Read more

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Can ALS present as upper motor neuron dominant? How rare is it?

Can ALS present as upper motor neuron dominant? How rare is it?

ALS: Yes, in some individuals there does seem to be a prevalence for one versus the other. At least at the beginning of the disease. As it progresses both upper and lower are progressively destroyed. Within ALS I wouldn't call it a rare finding. Its more related to the precision of the diagnostic findings by individual neurologists and overall timing. ...Read more

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What does it mean when an EMG states that lateral plantar cutaneous sensory responses are absent on the left?

What does it mean when an EMG states that lateral plantar cutaneous sensory responses are absent on the left?

EMG: The question is why the EMG was done? But in general means you have a damage to the nerve and therefore you have a neuropathy. Sometimes the nerve becomes entrapped and causes the neuropathy. ...Read more

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What does "the marrow signal in the cervical spine is decreased" mean? It says it can be correlated with a CBC. From MRI scan from 2007. Concerns?

What does "the marrow signal in the cervical spine is decreased" mean? It says it can be correlated with a CBC. From MRI scan from 2007. Concerns?

Not much: Each of the tissues in an MRI gives if a characteristic signal, which then makes it a certain appearance on the image. So the marrow signal was lower than average. This could be a normal variant, but is sometimes seen in patients with abnormalities of the marrow system which produces our blood cells; thus the recommendation to correlate with a CBC. I would just mention to your MD. ...Read more

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Is it true that with brain tumor the tingling, weakness odd sensations etc usually only affect one side of the body?

Is it true that with brain tumor the tingling, weakness odd sensations etc usually only affect one side of the body?

It can be: Depends on exactly where the tumor is located. If it is on one side, it will produce symptoms on the opposite side of the body. If it is near the midline, it may produce symptoms on both sides. Some tumors have a large amount of swelling around them so their mass effect can cross over to the other side of the brain ...Read more

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What is the function of the vagus nerve, what does it control, and what causes it to become irritated that results in chronic hiccuping?

What is the function of the vagus nerve, what does it control,  and what causes it to become irritated that results in chronic hiccuping?

To send info to brai: The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve and an extension of your brain. It is involved in your gag reflex. It sends signals from your brain, heart, and digestive system. The vagus nerve is tied to our emotions. Vagas nerve stimulation is a way to treat depression. Chronic hiccuping can be caused by irritation of the diaphragm or gallbladder disease. ...Read more

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If the motoric (but not sensory) part of the sciatic nerve is compressed, what would be the typical progression of symptoms?

If the motoric (but not sensory) part of the sciatic nerve is compressed, what would be the typical progression of symptoms?

Weakness of ankle: In clinical state that is hard to separate the sensory from motor. Motor effects of the L5 and s1 roots are generally weakness of the ankle and foot. ...Read more

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What is the vagus nerve? Can gerd/lpr stimulate it and what symptoms occur if it can?

What is the vagus nerve? Can gerd/lpr stimulate it and what symptoms occur if it can?

Nerves in the neck: The vagal nerves, 1 on either side of the neck, control the vocal cords; the left vagal nerve also gives parasympathetic innervation to the heart. In theory, gerd shouldn't stimulate the vagal nerves, because the esophagus is further back in the throat, while the vagal nerves are close to the front of the throat. ...Read more

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What is the different between upper and lower motor neuron lesions?

What is the different between upper and lower motor neuron lesions?

Lesion Localization: The upper motor neurons also called “Cortical Motor Neurons” are located in the motor cortex of the brain. The the spinal motor neurons are the lower motor neurons. Signs of UMN is a stiffness and resistance to movement. Signs of LMN damage include weakness, muscle atrophy. Hope it helps. ...Read more

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Why the area of focal cortical thickens in midpolar region of left kidney. What can be the result & how can it be treated ?

Why the area of focal cortical thickens in midpolar region of left kidney. What can be the result & how can it be treated ?

Dromedary hump?: A common cause of focal kidney thickening of the left kidney is a normal anatomic variant called a dromedary hump. However, suspicious areas that might represent tumor or areas of infection often need a ct scan with contrast or ultrasound with intravenous contrast to make sure a more serious problem is not present. ...Read more

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Can a untreated tooth pain cause a lip twitch intermittent does the nerves connected to the lip? Same side

Can a untreated tooth pain cause a lip twitch intermittent does the nerves connected to the lip? Same side

Yes and yes: Sensory nerves to the teeth also go to the lip. Twitch not uncommon . Your body is telling you that you have an untreated infection that will only get worse, hurt more, and will spread to bone, gums, lymph nodes, etc. Get it treated now rather than dealing with the consequences. It will not get better by itself. ...Read more

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What does this mean, some hyperintense signals are seen in the brainstem, cerebellum and bilateral thalami? Paransal sinuses show mucosal disease?

What does this mean, some hyperintense signals are seen in the brainstem, cerebellum and bilateral thalami? Paransal sinuses show mucosal disease?

Depends: At your age, must wonder about multiple sclerosis (radiologically isolated syndrome), but also, migraine can cause the spots, prior trauma can do this, and prior infection may be responsible. Discuss with a neurologist, as there may be valuable preventative treatment. The sinus issues are separate and consistent with a dry climate. ...Read more

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What two regions of the basal ganglia could, if inhibited, alleviate Parkinson's disease symptoms?

R U taking a test?: Basal ganglia physiology is incredibly complex & knowledge is always changing. Practically speaking, you stimulate rather than inhibit. See the Medtronic website for pretty pictures and also see http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/Mobile/article.aspx?articleid=793103. ...Read more

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What causes brain tumor symptoms? Is it the swelling of the brain or the tumor itself?

What causes brain tumor symptoms? Is it the swelling of the brain or the tumor itself?

Both: Most patients with brain tumors have edema "swelling" around the tumor. Drugs, such as dexamethasone, which reduce the edema reduce the symptoms, but usually do not eliminate symptoms. This is evidence that both the tumor itself and edema contribute to the symptoms of brain tumors. ...Read more

Dr. Scott Bolhack
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Wounds (Definition)

Wound = injury to tissue. May include ...Read more