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Fick Equation Cardiac Output Calculator
5 liters/min: A typical cardiac output is approximately 5 l per minute. This can vary with the size of the patient with a larger patient having larger cardiac output. When the cardiac output is normalized for the size of the patient, this is called the cardiac index. A typical cardiac index would be 2.5. A number of medical conditions, such as fever or anemia, can increase the cardiac output. ...Read more
4 to 5 liters/min: Approximately 4-5 l per minute. The cardiac output is proportional to the size of the patient. You can "normalize" the cardiac output by dividing the cardiac output by the body surface area resulting in a "cardiac index". The cardiac index is typically 2-3 l per minute per meter squared. ...Read more
Venoconstriction?: Cardiac output is inversely proportional to total peripheral resistance (which is related to mean arterial pressure.) venoconstriction refers to the venous system and can't be measured. If venous return increases, preload increases, and by starling's law of the heart, cardiac output increases. However, severe venoconstriction could eventually diminish venous return and reduce co. Yes? ...Read more
Natural: This is the normal pattern of the heart's output based upon the load conditions. The amount of blood filling the heart may vary mildly over time and combined with your level of activity and the force against your heart's ejection of blood (after load) the cardiac output may vary. Most important is that the output does not drop very low as in severe volume loss or weakness of the heart muscle. ...Read more
Exercise increase CO:
Exercise increases cardiac output as it usually increases both heart rate (hr) and stroke volume (sv) (amount of blood ejected by the heart in each beat) as cardiac output (co)
= hr x sv.
It is a compensatory mechanism to keep up with the demands of oxygen by the body doing exercise. If the cardiac output would not increase, the body would not be able to perform for long. ...Read more
Generally: Increases due to less resistance.Get a more detailed answer ›
Overloading: Low cardiac function may not be able to keep up with too much volume and the fluid backs up in places like the lung, neck, abdomen, and legs. Too much volume can overwhelm a borderline heart already weak. When the heart cannot keep up the needed cardiac output (liters per min) and making the pump work harder increasing pressure inside the heart, and dilating the chamber getting into a bad cycle. ...Read more
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