Doctor insights on:
Down Syndrome Vs Mental Retardation
Mental retardation is an old fashioned term now replaced with the term “Intellectual Disability”. It is defined as a measured intelligence below the normal range (less than 70) combined with inability to perform activities of daily living. For this designation a person must, in addition to having low measured ability, be significantly limited in at least two of the following areas: self-care, communication, home living, social/interpersonal skills, self-direction, use of community resources, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety. The four degrees of intellectual disability are mild, (IQ between 55-70) moderate, (between 35 and 50), severe and profound. In the severe and profound ranges individuals have language, communication and motor impairments and cannot be tested. Profound disability, is usually associated with a neurological condition. In addition to the categories of mild, moderate, severe, and profound, categories are sometimes used to designate those intellectually disabled persons who can benefit from some degree of academic training. Those designated "educable” can handle academic work at a third-to sixth-grade level, and usually have IQs that fall between 50 and 75. The designation “trainable” refers to those who can progress as far as second grade work and can live in a sheltered string without one on one constant care. It is important to know that a measured IQ is not as important as the access to and ability to respond to emotional, ...Read more
Prior to my birth, the doctors said I had spina bifida down syndrome, they said I would be retarded, what does this mean?
Who knows?: If you don't have either of these things it suggests that: 1) Doctors aren't always right 2) Ultrasounds weren't nearly as good in those days
About 70% of people: With DS have mild -moderate Intellectual Disability (ID) by standardized tests of abstract thinking, problem-solving, planning, academic learning, etc. & of adaptive ability in cognitive, social & practical areas. Mild ID = IQ 50-70; moderate ID = IQ 35-49. Some have IQ's in the Borderline Range of normal, 70-79; others, severe ID = IQ 20-34 or profound ID = IQ l<20. See www. Ndss. Org for more.
Early Intervention: Programs for infants with DS accelerate attainment of motor, communication, self-help/adaptive & cognitive skills through OT, PT, cognitive, behavioral & Speech/Language Therapy from 0-3, then Early Childhood Special Education beginning at age 3 + individual therapies, if possible. Ask teachers & therapists what skills your child has mastered, what he's ready to do next & how to motivate him.
My grandaughter has lost volume in the front of her brain. She has Down syndrome and west syndrome. How will this affect her physical and mental deve?
Misunderstanding?: A question like this is too important, and takes more knowledge of her individuality, for us to be able to answer. Down syndrome brains are shaped slightly differently from the rest of us and almost all of them have less volume in the front, which tends to be squared. Might it be that she has always been like this?
Whenever I think of genetic testing in pregnancy I think of problems with mental impairment like down syndrome?
Some do some don't: Most older kids and adults will be aware of their learning and performance difficulties when they have milder forms of intellectual impairment. The more profound the impairment, the less likely they are aware of the ramifications.
Variable: They are both "genetic" conditions but they are different in the spectrum of issues they present-. People with fragile x may have subtle cognitive impairments all depending on how affected the fmr1 gene is. People with downs have an extra chromosome and kids have delayed cognition as well as physical growth and frequently heart problems. They both may exhibit autistic traits, more so fagile x.
Old world term: Before the chromosome defect was found in '60's, the the facial structure of down syndrome kids/adults, reminded folks of the features of mongolian race. Original scientific publications used that terminology. It was well into the '70's before the descriptions began to change ; the public began to use the term down syndrome exclusively.
Before/after birth?: There are a variety of screening or confirmatory tests that can be done during pregnancy. After birth, many physical features are suggestive of the diagnosis, but the physician involved would order a chromosome test to confirm or exclude the issue. Over the years, some had signs so mild many would miss the diagnosis. Others looked so different I didn't believe it.
None of the above: Down syndrome happens when an extra 21 chromosome is present in all the cells of the body. It happens before conception when the donor egg fails to shed one of its 21 chromosomes in the formation of the egg; the male 21 joins the female pair & creates an embryo with 3 number 21's. It has nothing to do with traits or mutations in the gene code.See 1 more doctor answer
If Mom is 36 at term: Risk of having a fetus with DS at 16 weeks' gestation is 1:200; risk of having a full-term baby with DS is 1:275. If mom is 37 at term, risk at 16 weeks is 1:150; at term, 1:225, because some pregnancies are lost. Comprehensive 1st trimester screening & integrated 1st & 2nd trimester screening calculate risk by specific hormone & protein levels in mom's blood + fetal ultrasound + maternal age.
Confusing question: Down syndrome is present in any racial, ethnic, social, economic or other group in any country in the world. It can occur to women giving birth at any age but is more common in older mothers.
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