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Doctor insights on: Do Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Suppress Growth Of Brain

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Do norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors suppress growth of brain?

Do norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors suppress growth of brain?

No: At this time, there is no evidence to suggest this. As one may imagine, few if any studies have been performed in humans to look for this. ...Read more

Dr. Ravi Chand
758 doctors shared insights

Norepinephrine (Definition)

Norepinephrine is an inotrope which is a kind of heart ...Read more


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What meds, other than wellbutrin, (bupropion) can increase the dopamine re~uptake inhibitors?

What meds, other than wellbutrin, (bupropion) can increase the dopamine re~uptake inhibitors?

Several: Levodopa, which is used to treat parkinson's, encourages the brain to make dopamine. Tyrosine, an Amino Acid made from phenylalanine, is converted into levodopa, which is in turn converted to dopamine. Wellbutrin (bupropion) & the maoi's can also increase dopamine. Most tca's have minimal affinity for dat and thus don't increase Dopamine levels. Periwinkle and st. John's wort may also increase dopamine. ...Read more

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Does dopamite(dopamine supplement) increase more dopamine level or prescribed medicine like biperiden(dopamine reuptake inhibitor) does?

Does dopamite(dopamine supplement) increase more dopamine level or prescribed medicine like biperiden(dopamine reuptake inhibitor) does?

I'm curious: Why do you believe you need to take medication that claims to affect dopamine, especially OTC remedy which will NOT cross the brain-blood barrier? If you are depressed, you could see a psychiatrist, and if you have Parkinson's disease, a neurologist. ...Read more

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Does exercise increase serotonin by stimulating the uptake of tryptophan by brain synaptosomes(sze py.1976)?

Does exercise increase serotonin by stimulating the uptake of tryptophan by brain synaptosomes(sze py.1976)?

Stress does: That paper describes increased uptake of tryptophan caused by glucocorticoids. If you stress yourself while exercising, you might get some increase in the uptake, however, direct connection between tryptophan uptake and exercise was not described. ...Read more

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What causes acceleration in reuptake or norepinephrine and dopamine?

What causes acceleration in reuptake or norepinephrine and dopamine?

Wellbutrin (bupropion): Wellbutrin (bupropion) acts by enhancing the levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine at the site of each neurotransmitter. For this reason, it's an excellent medication choice for depression and executive functioning, such as conditions with attention and concentration impairments. However, due to its actions upon dopamine, it is relatively contraindicated in psychotic conditions. ...Read more

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Why does acetylcholine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, cause the adrenal glands to release stimulatory hormones?

Why does acetylcholine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, cause the adrenal glands to release stimulatory hormones?

Not correct: Hi. Acetyl choline (ACh) is not an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The sympathetic nervous system uses ACh as the neurotransmitter in the sympathetic ganglia (the 1st synapse outside the CNS). Usually that's from one neuron to another, but in the adrenal medulla, the cells are really the second neuron, but they release their contents (catecholamines) into the blood, not onto an organ (like the heart) ...Read more

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Do antipsychotics affect motivation because it blocks dopamine receptors?

Do antipsychotics affect motivation because it blocks dopamine receptors?

Meds and motivation: Antipsychotic meds used primarily for serious psychiatric disorders can help motivation as they improve disordered thinking, delusions and hallucinations. People who no longer have psychotic symptoms tend to function better and are more motivated overall. I hope this helps. ...Read more

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What are GABA antagonists that lead to gaba-a receptor up-regulation?

What are GABA antagonists that lead to gaba-a receptor up-regulation?

Not safe: GABA antagonists are not routinely prescribed for GABA A receptor upregulation. The main one flumazenil (clonazepam) is used for overdoses from benzodiazepines in an ER setting. It may cause withdrawal seizures. Your best bet is to detox and enter a drug tx program for alcohol or sedative-hypnotic dependence issues. ...Read more

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Does Brintellix in combination with Ritalin (methylphenidate) cause excitotoxicity because AFAIK they both increase glutamate levels in the brain.

Does Brintellix in combination with Ritalin (methylphenidate) cause excitotoxicity because AFAIK they both increase glutamate levels in the brain.

Doses: need to be taken into account. At high doses, both medicines can cause behavioral excitement. This shouldn't be a clinical concern, assuming proper management, unless one has bipolar disorder. However, glutamate is not a primary target neurotransmitter. Generally, drug interaction concerns are often best managed by the prescriber, since individual differences in pharmacokinets are significant. ...Read more

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Does coffee affects the levels of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine ?

Does coffee affects the levels of serotonin,  noradrenaline and dopamine ?

Yes: The caffeine in coffee blocks Adenosine receptors, which when activated make you tired and sleepy. This blockade also affects all major neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin -- and in high doses, norepinephrine too. Dopamine effects are not in the exact same regions of the brain that other addictive substances affect, though. ...Read more

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How do "serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors" ssris work?

How do "serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors" ssris work?

Still unclear: We know what they do--block reuptake at the neuron. But, why that helps with depression and anxiety, among other disorders, remains unclear. Especially puzzling is why it typically takes weeks or even months to produce the effect, suggesting strongly that it is not the direct effect that causes improvement but some change that induces downstream. ...Read more

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Can flumazenil (clonazepam) or ketamine increase tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain 10 points?

Can flumazenil (clonazepam) or ketamine increase tyrosine hydroxylase in the brain 10 points?

Ketamine Does..: Conversion of tyrosine to Dopamine is initiated (in part) by tyrosine hydroxylase (th). Long-term abuse of ketamine has been shown to cause "up regulation" and, therefore, increased production of, th as the reason for "delayed but persistent" increase in the neurotransmitter dopamine, a possible reason for "altered mental status" in those who abuse ketamine....Hmmm not sure about flumazenil! ...Read more

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What does "selective" mean in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor?

What does "selective" mean in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor?

Just one type: "selective" in this case refers to the fact that the previous generation of antidepressants, the tricyclics, worked on all 3 of the neurotransmitters in the brain thought to be involved in depression in varying degrees; serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Prozac, (fluoxetine) and the other ssris act almost entirely on serotonin. ...Read more

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I know that GABA inhibits release of dopamine, but what does glutamate do for dopamine? Precisely what would inhibition of NMDA do to dopamine?

I know that GABA inhibits release of dopamine, but what does glutamate do for dopamine? Precisely what would inhibition of NMDA do to dopamine?

Glutamate: Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter so would turn things on. Gaba is an inhibitory neurotransmitter an therefore turns things off nmda are channels in the brain for glutamate. Blocking the channels can calm things down magnesium is a nmda blocker. ...Read more

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What foods or supplements increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine?

What foods or supplements increase serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine?

St Johns wort: Is a very potent herb and should not be used with other anti-depressants. ...Read more

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What p450 enzymes are inhibited/induced by seroquel, (quetiapine) and what does a dopamine/norepinephrine antagonist do? Reduce dopamine levels? Specifics please?

What p450 enzymes are inhibited/induced by seroquel, (quetiapine) and what does a dopamine/norepinephrine antagonist do? Reduce dopamine levels? Specifics please?

Neither: Seroquel (quetiapine) passes through the cyp450 3a4 pathway & is extensively metabolized, but it neither inhibits nor induces the pathway itself. On the other hand, it's metabolism may be significantly affected by other medications. For instance, Dilantin induces the pathway causing seroquel (quetiapine) to be rushed through the pathway, leading to less-effective, lower blood levels. Antagonists are blockers. ...Read more

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Sine seratonin depletes other nerotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine...By "deplete" does it mean a permanent thing?

Sine seratonin depletes other nerotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine...By "deplete" does it mean a permanent thing?

Not correct: Serotonin does not deplete other neurotransmitters, but there is a balance especially between Dopamine and serotonin. This balance is dynamic and constantly re-establishing itself. Unless there is damage to neurons (which there can be when abusing certain drugs) neurotransmitter changes would not be permanent. ...Read more

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Do norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors suppress growth of brain?

No: At this time, there is no evidence to suggest this. As one may imagine, few if any studies have been performed in humans to look for this. ...Read more

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How does strattera (atomoxetine) help for ADHD if it is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor , without affecting dopamine ?

How does strattera (atomoxetine) help for ADHD if it is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor , without affecting dopamine ?

Strattera (atomoxetine) blocks : Reuptake of norepinephrine but rat studies show that it also raises levels of Dopamine in the prefrontal cortex 3x without raising levels in the nucleus accumbens that controls addiction and where the other stimulant drugs also act. Dr. Stephen stahl calls some of the cells in the prefrontal cortex promiscuous because they contain both norepinephrine and dopamine. There is more to be learned. ...Read more

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Antidepressants and Anesthesia. I'm on Reboxetine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ) and have a twilight anesthetic (colonoscopy) on 23rd. safe?

Antidepressants and Anesthesia. I'm on Reboxetine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ) and have a twilight anesthetic  (colonoscopy) on 23rd. safe?

Anesthesia : There should be no problem with your procedure. Make sure they know what medications you are taking. Colonoscopies while on medications such as yours are common place without side effects. Best wishes. ...Read more

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How does lyrica (pregabalin) work? Is it similiar to narcotic pain medicine? Or similiar to tramadol as norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor?

How does lyrica (pregabalin) work? Is it similiar to narcotic pain medicine? Or similiar to tramadol as norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor?

Lyrica (pregabalin): Dear pika89800 lyrica enhances gaba in the brain and suppresses pain at a cortical level, pain has 3 main levels, local, spinal and brain (cortex), it is non narcotic, it is an antiseizure medication and can sometimes help both pain and anxiety the answer is purely for educational purposes, please contact your md. ...Read more

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Is there any bad interaction between ecstasy (mdma) and nris (norepinephrine reputake inhibitors)?

Is there any bad interaction between ecstasy (mdma) and nris (norepinephrine reputake inhibitors)?

Yes: You don't need a bad interaction to have a bad experience with ecstasy. Both have stimulant like properties which can cause flushing, palpitations and psychosis. Ecstasy can be very dangerous in chronic use leading to depression which is hard to treat. It burns out your pleasure centers like Cocaine and other stimulants. ...Read more

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Will rhodiola rosea herb decrease norepinephrine levels in brain?

Will rhodiola rosea herb decrease norepinephrine levels in brain?

Probably not: There are anecdotal reports that this native siberian plant increases brain norepinephrine, but, to my reading, this may be open to question. ...Read more

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What are natural/holistic ways of stimulating or increasing norepinephrine in the brain?

What are natural/holistic ways of stimulating or increasing norepinephrine in the brain?

Tyrosine: Some feel that stress depletes catecholamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine in the brain.Tyrosine is a precursor for the synthesis of catecholamines, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Mental well-being is much more complex than any one neurotransmitter, but supplemental tyrosine may increase ne levels in the brain. Nausea, headache, fatigue, heartburn & arthralgias may come too. ...Read more

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What happens when the brain has too much norepinephrine?

Not sure: What I do know that one class of the antidepressant medications is based on the inhibition of an enzyme that reduces the level of norepinephrine, so net effect is noreinephrine increase. Opposite of depression is agitation, even convulsions..It's a complex subject though. ...Read more

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What happenes when the brain is exosed to too much norepinephrine?

What happenes when the brain is exosed to too much norepinephrine?

Neurotransmitter: Norepinephrine (ne) is a sympathomimetic catecholamine that is synthesized in the adrenal medulla, in sympathetic neuron terminals, and in the brainstem and pons. Along with serotonin and dopamine, norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter in the brain. "too much" could lead to activation &anxiety. It may enhance some types of aggression in animals, plus impulsivity and episodic violence in humans. ...Read more

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Can Xanax (alprazolam) cause brain fog? Also can low norepinephrine cause brain fog? I feel as if my dopamine is fine anything besides stims help with "fog"?

"Low"? "Normal"?: You're treating the human brain like a casserole. You're reducing to absurd simplicity an organ whose complexity surpasses human understanding. Neurotransmitters SO don't work that way. There is no "low" or "normal" the way you' think of it. Neurochemistry isn't a New Age fad. Your awareness of it is commendable but you labor under major misconceptions. You can learn more. It's not beyond you. ...Read more

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Does ibuprofen raise or lower levels of serotonin dopamine or norepinephrine in the brain? Or something else?

Does ibuprofen raise or lower levels of serotonin dopamine or norepinephrine in the brain? Or something else?

There are no levels: There are no "levels" of neurotransmitters (NTs) in the brain. They don't just float around freely as if in blood. NTs are constantly being dynamically synthesized in neurons, being released into synaptic clefts, & within milliseconds undergoing reuptake either before or after the molecules have been destroyed & recycled into making more NTs. Furthermore, NTs differ depending on the brain region. ...Read more

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Is the selective norepinephine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, effective ?

Evidence says not: One meta-analysis* (a study pooling results from multiple other studies) suggested that reboxetine is ineffective & may be harmful. *(eyding d et.Al. "reboxetine for acute treatment of major depression: systematic review &meta-analysis of published &unpublished placebo &selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled trials."bmj. 2010; 341:c4737). ...Read more

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Dr. Ravi Chand
78 doctors shared insights

Levophed (Definition)

Levophed is an inotrope which is a kind of heart ...Read more