Doctor insights on:
Diseases Of The Hypothalamus
The structure?: to effect the structure of, say, the heart requires an embryological defect - in other words you're often born with it. Over time theres a ton of things that can effect the heart structure - commonly things like chronic hypertension or valvular disorders can effect the structure of the heart walls and chambers. ...Read more
Can you explain the regulation of adrenal cortex function by the way of the pituitary gland stimulation of the adrena?
Feedforward/feedback: Hi. Hypothalamus important, but to keep it simple, pituitary ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to make cortisol. Cortisol negatively feeds back to suppress pituitary ACTH. If cortisol falls or a big stress is encountered, ACTH goes up and stimulates more cortisol production. The pituitary "sees" the increase in cortisol, and cuts back on ACTH to keep cortisol in appropriate range. Diurnal pattern ...Read more
Pituitary disease: The hypothalamus and pituitary work together to regulate many functions in the body, including hormonal regulation. Diseases can causes hormone deficiency or excess. Some of the hormones regulated are the thyroid, growth hormone, prolactin, (breastfeeding hormone) testosterone or estrogen, and cortisol. ...Read more
Too many: There are many diseases that directly or indirectly affect the limbic system. Too many to name in this short space. It might be better to describe the symptoms you are concerned about or consult a neurologist. ...Read more
What are two ways the endocrine system directly impacts the functions of the cardiovascular system?
Many...: Via adrenaline it puts more stress on the heart, making it beat harder, stronger and faster. Nor-adrenaline causes the blood vessels to contract, raising the blood pressure. High Insulin levels, as in "pre-diabetes" cause the release of free fatty acids which damages the blood vessel walls, causing plaque formation. Cortisol and other hormones also have adverse effects. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Nervous system: In general terms, the central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain & spinal cord. The peripheral ns includes the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, & all others outside of the cns. Functionally the autonomic ns involves essentially involuntary actions. The sympathetic ns is the 'fight or flight' emergency system & parasympathetic ns is the rest & digest system. They work together. ...Read more
Suggestions: There are far too many common neurological conditions to address here. If you have a keen interest, several general neurologist textbooks are readily available, and online, Wikipedia could be a start. ...Read more
Too numerous: There are so many different symptoms based on which body system is affected by the particular autoimmune disease. For example, psoriasis affects the skin but can also affect the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints but can also affect the lungs. Lupus erythematosus can affect multiple organ systems. The symptoms generally follow the organ systems but non-specific fatigue is common. ...Read more
Endocrine: Each hormone is a chemical that control function of many different organs. Brain hormones send orders to organs to work. Brain secretes TSH to order thyroid to work to control whole body. Sexual hormones control brain and whole body, as does Insulin controls use of sugar in whole body (brain included). Then hormones are inter-dependent. Delicate balance! ...Read more
Varies: If encephalitis spreads to the hypothalamus it is hard to predict, because there are many nuclei or "centers" in the hypothalamus that do very different and sometimes opposite functions. For example some people with encephalitis lethargica slept constantly while others could not fall asleep at all, because different nuclei were affected. ...Read moreSee 1 more doctor answer
Dopamine: "Pleasure centers" include the ventral tegmentum and nucleus accumbens, areas deep in the brain that use dopamine to signal intensely pleasurable experiences and reward. That said, numerous other areas are involved in the experience of pleasure and they may deploy different transmitters, for example, acetylcholine in the septal nuclei. ...Read more
The engine...: The main function of the cardiovascular system is to keep all of the other organ systems functioning by providing them with blood flow. All the organ systems work in harmony to make the body work, some act like filters, some like computers, some like machines. The heart is like the engine in the car. You need all the parts of the car to work to drive it, but won't go anywhere without the engine. ...Read more