brain structures and functions worksheet

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The brain and spinal cord are one continuous structure. What covers it?

Dura

Head-brain
The dura is a tough sheet of tissue that covers the whole central nervous system.
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Dr. Kalyn Diamond answered:

What is the difference in brain structure of someone with a memory loss disorder?

It depends

Amnesia
It really depends on the reason for the memory loss. Different pathologies have different brain structure changes. And some people with the same diagnosis (i.e., vascular dementia) might have different areas of their brain affected.
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Whats the brain structure like for a person with normal memory loss vs a memory loss disorder?

Atrophy

Multiple_sclerosis
Various areas of the brain will shrink, or atrophy, with progressive memory disorders, and the patterns can assist with clinical diagnosis. Although normal aging is associated with gradual atrophy, this is far less than Alzheimer's. Atrophy, either focal or diffuse, can be present in younger patients following a brain injury, or multiple sclerosis.
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Is it true that methylphenidate can cause changes in the brain like neurons structure after long term use (years)???

Not in monkeys

Head-brain
There is no data yet that convincingly show long-term problems with methylphenidate. In fact one study done in monkeys specifically showed no change in brain structure on PET scan. The ultimate study of course remains to be done on humans. I think that it's safe to say that the basic science research looks very good but the final Studies in human beings still need to be carried out. So far however there was no signal that long-term structural changes are occurring. Hopefully will find this reassuring and helpful. Best wishes.
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Can depression and PTSD change your brain structure and cause neurological problems later in life? I am 33 and have been on meds & therapy for 5 yrs.

Brain changes

Head-brain
PTSD can cause significant changes in brain physiology. The amygdala (fight or flight) becomes over -active. The frontal cortex forgets to monitor the amygdala- so there is more impulsive behavior The hippocampus forgets to do it's job laying down new memories and retrieving old ones. Neurotransmitters are out of wack. Early and aggressive treatment is important for optimal outcomes in tx.
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Have there been any recent/ongoing studies on the long term effects (brain structure changes, cognitive, neurological, cardio, etc.) of Adderall use for the treatment of adult ADHD? Akin to those studies on SSRIs and structural changes in the Amygdala, la

Yes.

Adderall
The use of stimulants in ADHD patients stimulates white matter growth to normal levels. If not used, white matter is 25% less volume in ADHD pts at 25 yrs old. This means decreased learning and connectivity in untreated ADHD people.
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Dr. Alon Seifan answered:

What are brain stem function?

For life

Brain
Brain stem functions include most things we do reflexively without thinking, like breathing, swallowing, adjusting our heart rate to our environment, sweating on the face, moving our eyes in unison, keeping our balance and even digesting food. The brain stem also houses the nerves that innervate the structures of the head, including facial muscles.
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Can naps increase brain function?

Depends on situation

Head-brain
Mental performance will be at its best when a person is well rested, well fed,not ill and in a comfortable setting. Sleep deprivation causes a predictable decline in performance. To this extent, naps that help one catch up with a sleep deficit will be helpful. Most mature adults can function well on 7-8 hours of sleep/24h. Performance in excess of capability is unlikely due to extra sleep.
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Dr. William Singer answered:

What in vyvanse makes the brain function?

Vyvanse

Cerebrum
Vyvanse is an amphetamine that causes an increase in Dopamine and Nor Epinephrin levels in the brain. Dopamine is necessary for focused attention and concentration. It also is responsible for feelings of satisfaction and happiness. Nor Epinephrin is brain adrenalin and serves to enhance brain alertness.
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Dr. Jason A. Kline answered:

Will a major UTI affect ur brain function?

It can.

Head-brain
Elderly people can develop altered mental states from seemingly benign causes including medications, unfamiliar settings and infections. Often times, a simple UTI that manifests as urinary urgency/frequency/fevers in a younger individual may actually present only as confusion in an elderly person. The confusion almost always resolves as the infection is treated.
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