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Doctor insights on: Botulism Biodefense And Bioterrorism

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Does the body produce antitoxins against clostridium botulinum and tetani toxins?

Does the body produce antitoxins against clostridium botulinum and tetani toxins?

Yes but...: In neither conditions, recovery from the disease does not confer immunity because the toxin is usually not present in amount large enough to induce adequate immune response. ...Read more

Dr. Larry Lutwick
17 doctors shared insights

Biodefense And Bioterrorism (Definition)

Biodefense and bioterrorism refer to activities around preventing and detecting malicious acts involving the use of bacteria, or other biologic agents. The use of mailed anthrax in 2001 was ...Read more


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How come a cholera vaccine only contain cholera poison and not the cholera bacteria?

How come a cholera vaccine only contain cholera poison and not the cholera bacteria?

Vaxchora: “Vaxchora is a live, attenuated vaccine. The V. choleraevaccine strain in Vaxchora produces an incomplete, nontoxic version of the cholera toxin. Vaxchora replicates in the gastrointestinal tract.” REF: https://www.paxvaxconnect.com/vaxchora?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_term=vaxchora&utm_campaign=HCP%20Brand ...Read more

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I'm afraid of a bioterrorist anthrax attack, is there a publicly available vaccine?

I'm afraid of a bioterrorist anthrax attack, is there a publicly available vaccine?

Vaccine available: A vaccine is available and you should consult your doctor to determine need for it and your suitability as a recipient. Please note that you are more likely to get hit by lightening than get anthrax from a terrorist attack. ...Read more

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Why can't the tetanus toxin tetanospasmin be given to lessen the effects of botulism?

Why can't the tetanus toxin tetanospasmin be given to lessen the effects of botulism?

First, they are two: different organisms that cause different diseases. Second, giving a neurotoxin to a patient with botulism would hurt the patient, not help him. ...Read more

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Hypochondriac-deathly afraid of flu. heard so much paranoia and fear tactics used against getting the flu vaccine. what's the truth, is it safe?

Hypochondriac-deathly afraid of flu. heard so much paranoia and fear tactics used against getting the flu vaccine. what's the truth, is it safe?

Asked and answered: Didn't you just ask this question? The flu is a debilitating illness of fever, chills, muscle aches and pains. Depending upon the strain young people such as yourself are hit especially hard. One recent winter a disproportionate number of deaths were in young people. It can progress to a severe pneumonia. Side effects are mild. Serious side effects very rare. fear the flu, not the shot. ...Read more

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Can anti-bacterial soap help fight the swine flu virus?

Can anti-bacterial soap help fight the swine flu virus?

Not really: If you are referring to the present scare, this reported flu strain has only been associated with pig to human transmission, not human to human transfer. It is also a mild strain and no one has died and only 2 have needed hospitalization. What i would like to point out here is the "news press" and it's affinity to blow things out of proportion and only report what will get ratings. Talk to docs. ...Read more

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What are two ways we support our immune systems in the fight against pathogens?

What are two ways we support our immune systems in the fight against pathogens?

Diet and exercise: A balanced diet with plenty of leafy green vegetables supports your immune system. Consider organic vegetables in a salad and juiced. Exercise every day however you like helps too. Stress reduction with meditation is a big help. This is such a good time in your life to develop these good habits. Also, live cheaply so you'll never get trapped in a job you no longer love. All the best. ...Read more

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What are the dangers of inhibiting the cytokine cascade that is initiated by bartonella? Can your immune system still kill the bartonella?

What are the dangers of inhibiting the cytokine cascade that is initiated by bartonella?  Can your immune system still kill the bartonella?

Bartonella: Most people get bartonella infections when they are immunocomprised, so it really depends on the persons individual immune system. The standard is to treat with antibiotics. Do you know what illness is involved? Cat scratch fever? Bartonella can be found in fleas, ticks, biting flies, mosquitoes, lice, mites, and chiggers. ...Read more

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Are antibiotics responsible for the mutation of bird flu and mad cow disease?

Are antibiotics responsible for the mutation of bird flu and mad cow disease?

No: There is no evidence that antibiotics have anything to do with viral mutations, particularly influenza which is known to mutate regularly long before antibiotics were used. Mad cow disease is caused by a prion, and this is too complicated to discuss here. But it is not in any way related to antibiotics. ...Read more

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In today's life human has wide threat of dangerous things like free radicals and other toxic elements in body, how to prevent or wash them out?

In today's life human has wide threat of dangerous things like free radicals and other toxic elements in body, how to prevent or wash them out?

Free radicals are: Atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Antioxidants (vitamins c and e, carotenoids, phytochemicals from plants) scavenge or neutralize free radicals. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of vitamin c and carotenoids. Whole grains and high quality vegetable oils are major sources of vitamin e. ...Read more

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Has there been any cases recorded where clostridium tetani infected human with tetanus by eating food? Thanks

Has there been any cases recorded where clostridium tetani infected human with tetanus by eating food? Thanks

Don't know of any : Cases from clostridium tetani. However it can happen with clostridium botulism. See this article: http://www.Ncbi.Nim.Nih.Gov/pubmedhealth/pmh0001624/ ** infant botulism can occur with raw honey or corn syrup. Home canned foods can be contaminated with it. ...Read more

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What are food that boost immunity against Ebola ?what are the basic symptoms first aid of Ebola?what organ does the virus attack first?regards

What are food that boost immunity against Ebola ?what are the basic symptoms first aid of Ebola?what organ does the virus attack first?regards

Ebola: There are no particular foods that would boost immunity against the Ebola virus. Sx’s of Ebola Virus may include: Fever > 101.5 F, marked headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, muscular pain, weakness & hemorrhaging (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, rectum). Treatment of ebola is symptomatic (maintain blood pressure, intravenous fluids & electrolytes etc). ...Read more

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How effective is chlorine in killing germs, viruses, and bacteria?

How effective is chlorine in killing germs, viruses, and bacteria?

Very effective.: Chlorine compounds are widely used to kill bacteria and disinfect surfaces. Examples include treating water, washing fruit and vegetables and disinfecting food contact surfaces. Chlorine is usually combined with inorganic compounds, such as sodium or calcium, to produce hypochlorites, which are effective disinfectants. Chlorine mixed with sodium is a liquid bleach (sodium hypochlorite naocl). ...Read more

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Why does the cholera vaccine only contain cholera poison and not the cholera bacteria?

Why does the cholera vaccine only contain cholera poison and not the cholera bacteria?

Both!: The recipient of the vaccine develops antibodies to the toxin and the bacteria. The most common vaccine in use today contains killed whole cells and fragments of the toxin. The vaccine acts by inducing antibodies against both the bacterial components and the toxin! ...Read more

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What’s the difference between all the vaccines containing diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine?

What’s the difference between all the vaccines containing diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine?

Ingredients: The acellular pertussis vaccines is now recommended to be given at least once to all adults . There is no recommendation for more than 1 adult booster, but i would not be surprised to see it given for every booster (7-10 yrs) in the future.The other differences are related to the specific type of antigens and quatity in each vaccine.Antigens are the material that triggers your immunity. ...Read more

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How can immunisation protect us from tetanus bacteria?

How can immunisation protect us from tetanus bacteria?

DTaP Does: The childhood immunization will protect your child against Tetanus as DPat shots given at 2-4-6 months,and at 15-18 months and a booster at4-6 years of age will protect your child againsy TETANUS/DIPTHERIA/PERTUSSIS(WhoopingCoough) Get your children Immunised ...Read more

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How can we best protect from avian flu cytokine storms?

How can we best protect from avian flu cytokine storms?

Cannot: Except by not getting influenza or treating it in first day or two. ...Read more

Dr. Oscar Novick
6 doctors shared insights

Biological Weapons (Definition)

Biological weapons is a term for infectious diseases being used as weapons to disable, ...Read more


Dr. Ricardo Maselli
176 doctors shared insights

Botulinum Poisoning (Definition)

An illness due to toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. ...Read more