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Doctor insights on: Biological Molecules Involved Diabetes

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Dr. Quang Nguyen
3,474 doctors shared insights

Diabetes (Definition)

A group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the ...Read more


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What are pros and cons of genetic engineering such as stem cell research, cloning?

What are pros and cons of genetic engineering such as stem cell research, cloning?

Controversial: Significant moral and scientific controversies in use of genetic engineering and cloning. Limited experience in the long-term outcomes make both issues limited to laboratory and animal studies. ...Read more

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What environmental factors affect our nervous system?

What environmental factors affect our nervous system?

Likely numerous: Examples: Changes in barometric pressures or weather may provoke migraine headaches. Multiple sclerosis may be triggered by low contact with sun and secondary low Vitamin D. Presence of parasitic infections may protect against autoimmune disorders. It goes on and on, but the above gives an idea of the complexity. ...Read more

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What kind of organ transplants/other donatable body parts require only biological family members?

What kind of organ transplants/other donatable body parts require only biological family members?

Not really: Today, successful transplant outcomes can be obtained using organs from friends or strangers. Obviously, hearts only come from deceased donors, most are unrelated. ...Read more

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What specific" autoimmune diseases attacks and targets our brain cells , neurons, nerves, so we lose our emotions, feelings, empathy, inhibitions, ?

Lupus number one: The commonest cause of autoimmune cerebritis is central nervous system lupus. It is treatable. Another cause is bechets syndrome and there is a very rare form that is idiopathic, meaning cause is unknown. But lupus remains the commonest. ...Read more

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Is there research into any genetic, autoimmune or other condition that links nerve sheath disorders (tarlov cysts, nerve sheath tumor) with autoimmune hypophysitis targeting acth cells? Ctla-4 gene?

Is there research into any genetic, autoimmune or other condition that links nerve sheath disorders (tarlov cysts, nerve sheath tumor) with autoimmune hypophysitis targeting acth cells? Ctla-4 gene?

Immune modulation: Ipilimumab is a drug used to treat melanoma. It targets ctla-4, which is a t cell receptor that downregulates part of the immune system. A side effect has been described: autoimmune hypophysitis (inflammation of the pituitary) which can knock out many hormones, including acth. There are a few articles on this. Torino et al, oncologist 2012; 17:525. ...Read more

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What makes immune cells only attack one type of antigen, as opposed to multiple different antigens?

What makes immune cells only attack one type of antigen, as opposed to multiple different antigens?

It's complicated: When immune cells come into contact with a foreign substance (called an antigen), they engulf that substance and either start making antibodies to it or activate other immune cells to come into the area to fight off the foreign invader. Antigens are fairly specific so antibodies that form are also fairly specific. Sometimes mistakes occur however. Here's a link to more: http://bit.ly/1uy9lyG ...Read more

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Identify body system or types of organs involved at each step of hoemostasis?

Identify body system or types of organs involved at each step of hoemostasis?

Hemostasis: Hemostasis is a complex process involving cellular blood components (platelets) and humoral or serum (liquid) components. There are organs involved in production of those components (chiefly bone marrow and liver) but these are not directly involved in the processes of hemostasis. ...Read more

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With bipolar ii, adhd, & c ptsd, what additional tests are beneficial? Ie: hormone, neurotransmitter , DNA mutation (mthfr, a1at ...) methylation etc.

Yes: I would definitely check mthfr and comt. Both these are involved in methylation. One is involved in neurotransmitter synthesis, and the other in breakdown. Therefore polymorphisms can impact mood, etc, and if so, vitamins and supplements can help the methylation cycle. I check mthfr in most of my patients. ...Read more

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Is there a name for all the chemicals like cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that are in the immune and lymphatic system, like immune factors?

Is there a name for all the chemicals like cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors that are in the immune and lymphatic system, like immune factors?

Signaling: proteins, is what all of these terms do functionally. Chemokines are cytokines. And many use the term cytokine and growth factor interchangeably but the name growth factor tends to imply a proliferative effect on cell division/growth while cytokines can have both stimulant or inhibitory effects on cell growth/division. ...Read more

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Which environment factors influence the evolution of asperger's, parallel to the genetic factor?

Social interaction: Genetic issues are not really understood. Autism spectrum disorders are complex and evolve over time. We are seeing more children in whom autism symptoms resolve as they mature. Applied behavioral analysis and social interaction contribute much. ...Read more

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How is complement involved in immune responses?

How is complement involved in immune responses?

Complement: The complement system helps antibodies and phagocytic cells clear pathogens. It is part of the immune system called the innate immune system that is not adaptable and does not change over the course of an individual's lifetime. However, it can be recruited and brought into action by the adaptive immune system. Generally synthesized by the liver. Stimulated by one of several triggers....Etc. ...Read more

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What type of autoimmune disease attacks only brain cells and neurons without antibodies in blood work ?

What type of autoimmune disease attacks only brain cells and neurons without antibodies in blood work ?

Autoimmune brain dz: Answers to your question include multiple sclerosis, rasmussen encephalitis, sometimes paraneoplastic diseases. Vasculitis conditions are numerous - some are not named. These attack blood vessels though, not neurons. Many of them have no blood test marker. ...Read more

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Can an autoimmune disease effect our nerves, brain cells , neurons, and part of our brain, so we lose our emotions feelings, empathy, inhibitions, ?

Possible: It all depends on the kind of autoimmune disease and place of involvement. For instance, lupus could cause cerebritis ie brain inflammation and even could go as far as causing coma. But lupus could be only localized to other places like causing kidney disease, lung diseases, skin disease, or arthritis. ...Read more

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What genes play an important role in cerebrovascular disease?

What genes play an important role in cerebrovascular disease?

Many: Since there are many types of stroke, this is a very complicated question. Most strokes are related to atherosclerosis ( fat deposit in the arteries). So the genes involved ( there are many) in lipid (fat) metabolism and blood pressure regulation are important. One important set of genes seems to be located on chromosome number 9. In any case this is an active area of medical research. ...Read more

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What are some pros and cons of genetic engineering such as stem cell research and cloning?

What are some pros and cons of genetic engineering such as stem cell research and cloning?

Still research: Stem cells and cloning are research tools but they offer the hope of treating some disorders that may not have any other successful treatments. Consider new pancreas cells to treat diabetes, cells to correct parkinsons, etc. I doubt anyone has a good idea of where cloning will be of benefit. Any technology can be abused but let's focus on the good hopeful uses. ...Read more