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Doctor insights on: Astrocytes

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Endocervical and/or squamous metaplastic cells?

Endocervical and/or squamous metaplastic cells?

Pathologist speak: This simply means that when the pathologist reviewed your pap smear it contained either normal cells from the inside of the cervical opening or cells that were not microscopically different in appearance from cervical cells. ...Read more

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Basal cell carcinoma multifocal superficial?

Excision: This type of basal cell needs excision with a 3-5 mm margin. Consult with your dermatologist or plastic surgeon. ...Read more

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Mesothelioma biopsy says 'portions of fibrous tissue infiltrated by malignant cells forming nests. tumor cells +'ve for CK7 and calretinin. prognosis?

Mesothelioma biopsy says 'portions of fibrous tissue infiltrated by malignant cells forming nests. tumor cells +'ve for CK7 and calretinin. prognosis?

Marker not prognosis: CK7 and calretinin are used to verify that the tumor is mesothelial in origin (versus adenocarcinoma of the lung). It does not provide information about prognosis. Factors associated with pleural mesothelioma prognosis include: functional status, blood counts, histology (epithelial best vs fibrosarcomatous poorest), and tumor size (degree of involvement of pleural cavity). Several new trials. ...Read more

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Are lymphocyte rich hodgkin's lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin's lymphoma the same?

Are lymphocyte rich hodgkin's lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin's lymphoma the same?

Sometimes: Both ate classified as hodgkin but they can behave differetlny. Both are treated te same with chemo abvd regimen. Some new data suggest adding Rituxan (rituximab) if cd 20 positive in lymphocyte predominantly disease. ...Read more

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Epithelial cell abnormalties atypical aglandular cells nos. What does this mean from my pap?

Epithelial cell abnormalties atypical aglandular cells nos.  What does this mean from my pap?

Atypical Glandular cells: The cervix has two cell types- squamous, and glandular. Most abnormalities are in the squamous cells, and can often be seen with colposcopy. Glandular abnormalities are usually not visible with a magnifying lens at colposcopy, and so biopsies are needed to rule out cancers. Glandular cancers are related to HPV usually like the squamous ones, so HPV testing can also help. ...Read more

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Epithelial cell abnormality, High-Grade Squamous Intraephithelial lesion, atypical glandular cells and sever dysplasia. What should my concern be?

Epithelial cell abnormality, High-Grade Squamous Intraephithelial lesion, atypical glandular cells and sever dysplasia.  What should my concern be?

Pap smear: Is this the result of your pap smear? if yes, then it means moderate or severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma in situ, which in some cases could lead to cervical cancer. you need Colposcopy and possible biopsy. Talk to your Gynecologist regarding a treatment plan. ...Read more

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No abnormal infiltrates in the bone marrow but states 15 percent plasma cells means?

No abnormal infiltrates in the bone marrow but states 15 percent plasma cells means?

Abnormal result: 15% plasma cells is abnormally high. This may be due to several different causes. Sometimes it may be due to an acute infection, or another illness in the body. A more serious cause is Multiple Myeloma. There is also Asymptomatic Multiple Myeloma in which the patient has: normal x-rays, red blood count, blood calcium and kidney function. Only some of these will develop Multiple Myeloma. ...Read more

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What induces apoptosis in cancer cells?

What induces apoptosis in cancer cells?

Many factors.: There are many factors/regulators that induce apoptosis in cancer and normal cells. These are defective or turned off in cancer cells. For example, the x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (xiap) is overexpressed in cancer cells. Xiaps bind to caspase-9, and suppress apoptotic activator cytochrom c, allowing the damaged cells to live. Deactivation of p53 apoptotic protein is another example. ...Read more

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Can we increase immature cells in our body purposely? Immature wbc..

Can we increase immature cells in our body purposely? 
Immature wbc..

No & not desirable: Increasing immature cells is not only not feasible, it is not desirable as it would increase the risk of cancer. ...Read more

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Pathology report: mixed protoplasmic astocytoma and olichdendroglioma grade 2. Does that mean cancer?

Pathology report: mixed protoplasmic astocytoma and olichdendroglioma grade 2. Does that mean cancer?

Yes: This is a description of a type of brain cancer. You need to talk with a/your neurosurgeon about this in greater detail for the appropriate management. ...Read more

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Muscle Biopsy Results Meaning? rare chronic inflammatory cells, composed of CD3/CD8 positive T-lymphocytes and CD68 positive macrophages.

Muscle Biopsy Results Meaning? rare chronic inflammatory
cells, composed of CD3/CD8 positive T-lymphocytes and CD68 positive macrophages.

All lab test need ..: With data we need clinical context. That is why you are having trouble. There is not enough information to provide an interpretation. ...Read more

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Hi Doc, had UTI test. Result: Epithelial cells 1-2/HPF, pus Cells 2-3/HPF, colony count 100,000 cfu/ml. Organism Isolated:Staphylococcus saprophyticus?

Hi Doc, had UTI test. Result: Epithelial cells 1-2/HPF, pus Cells 2-3/HPF, colony count 100,000 cfu/ml. Organism Isolated:Staphylococcus saprophyticus?

Possible UTI: The organism you described is a skin contaminant and is not considered a pathological bacteria it is not the bacteria that has given you a bladder infection. If you have pain on urination or pain around the belly you may have a bladder infection these values in your urine analysis are not diagnostic of a UTI. ...Read more

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Define differential diagnosis of prolymphocytic leukemia or mantle cell leukemia.

Define differential diagnosis of prolymphocytic leukemia or mantle cell leukemia.

They are too differe: There should be no confusion between these two entities. One is a lymphoma(nodal disease) the other one is a blood cancer that should not affect the lymph nodes. Rather easy diagnosis if you are seeing the right type of specialist! ...Read more

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What characterizes early stage squamous cell carcinoma?

What characterizes early stage squamous cell carcinoma?

Nothing: Even in the lung, squamous cell carcinomas are usually silent until they have become large enough to cause coughing up of blood -- one of the common ways in which it announces itself. On the skin, of course, a growing mass with a rough surface is (depending on how it looks) likely to be a squamous skin cancer; these are usually easy to cure. Good luck. ...Read more

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Are white blood cells affected by sickle cell trait?

Are white blood cells affected by sickle cell trait?

No, they are not.: In sickle cell trait, only the red blood cells carry an anormality. The white blood cells and platelets are not affected. ...Read more

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What type of leukemia involves immature white blood cells: lymphocytic or myeloid?

What type of leukemia involves immature white blood cells: lymphocytic or myeloid?

Leukemias: Acute leukemias are those with large numbers of immature cells that grow quickly. They can be either myeloid or lymphoid in lineage. Chronic leukemias have more mature cells, a longer course, but can also be myeloid or lymphoid. A hematologist/oncologist is generally the treating physician, and a hematopathologist is the one who give the specific syping. ...Read more

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