Doctor insights on:
Afferent Pupillary Defects
Marcus-Gunn pupil: An afferent pupillary defect indicates a lesion in the afferent limb (retina or optic nerve) of the pupillary reflex. Such a lesion is best appreciated on the "swinging flashlight test." a lesion in the left optic nerve will decrease the perceived illumination in that eye, and when the flashlight is swung from the right to the left eye, the left pupil will appear to dilate slightly. ...Read more
Does Cialis affect pde6-phosphodiesterase enzyme present in retina and cause electroretinographic abnormalities, pupil-sparing third nerve palsy?
Whoa!: Simmer down cowboy. Where are you reading all this stuff? Let's just say non of the available ed meds is "penis only" specific. How's that? ...Read more
Beyond scope: We're allowed 400 characters at this site. I ecommend webmd.Com for the depth tha to are apparently looking for. ...Read more
Not likely.: Most congenital cardiac defects are due to multifactorial inheritance and environmental factors such as Folic Acid deficiency. I am not aware of specific studies linking them to a faulty signal transduction pathway, although such mechanisms frequently become the final common pathway of multiple etiological pathogenic factors. ...Read more
Enlarged perivascular space in basal ganglia. Is by any cranial nerves? Double vision, enlarged pupils, trigeminal neuralgia, pulsating tinnitus
What's the difference between strabismus & cranial nerve palsies that effect the eyes? Can cranial nerve palsies cause strabismus?
Different patterns: Strabismus is the generic term for eye misalignment of any cause. If from childhood, the eyes are separated about the same in all positions. If from cranial palsy, the degree of separation goes from normal away from the action of the muscles, to a very wide difference in the direction of the action of that muscle. An ophthalmologist can usually readily make this distinction. ...Read more
Hemi-field loss: Is usually due to a pathology posterior (behind) to the eye itself. A lesion or area of pathology will usually be located from the area of the pituitary gland (approx. just forward of central brain) where the optic nerves cross to anywhere along the optic radiation ending at the occipital lobe (portion of the brain at the lower back of the skull). An MRI or CT can usually identify the cause. ...Read more
Morning glory disk anomaly with ipsilateral capillary hemangioma, agenesis of the internal carotid artery, and horner syndrome: a variant of phaces syndrome?
Not usually: An ASD does not generally affect oxygen delivery to the brain (or the rest of the body). The only exception would be in the setting of severe pulmonary artery hypertension in which low oxygenated blood can flow from the right atrium into the left atrium and be pumped to the body. ...Read more
No: They're different entities.Get a more detailed answer ›