Doctor insights on:
Adrenal Cortex Vs Adrenal Medulla
Rather 3 not 1: In a nutshell: 1- Cortisol, which is cortisone important for several metabolic functions, its release is regulated by the pituitary gland in the brain, 2- Aldosterone, plays a role in controlling blood pressure and balancing salts in circulation, and 3- acts a secondary site for producing Androgens, as testosterone and others, which have several effects on muscle mass and cell growth, ...Read more
Shrinks down: If you do not use a gland, it tends to atrophy, or shrink. If you take steroid pills, your adrenals do not need to produce any, and the glands atrophy. The cells, however, do not die, so they will come back, but it can take time, depending on how long you were on steroids and what dose. ...Read more
How much? How long?: It depends on the steroids potency (they differ), the length of time you take it, and the amount you are taken. Very modest suppression can occur within a week, because acth production by the pituitary will decrease, but reawaken in a couple of days. However high doses for along period (1mo) will atrophy the adrenal gland and you will need to taperm commencing with an alternate day regimen. ...Read more
Adrenals: This is news to me. I cannot think of any physiologic reason. And any "enlargement" would not be noticeable on a scan. ...Read more
Adrenal cortex: If you have addison's disease, you will lose production of cortisol, and often aldosterone (na/k balance) too. Epinephrine is not usually affected. Beware of the diagnosis of "adrenal fatigue". Adrenals respond to the situation at hand. They can fail (i.e. Addison's), but don't usually fatigue. If you are being told this, see an endocrinologist to make sure about the diagnosis. ...Read more
Addisons disease is caused by decreased functioning of the adrenal cortex. What causes the decreased functioning?
Addison's: There are a number of causes. Autoimmunity is common. Just as Hashimoto's causes decreased function of the thyroid, autoimmunity can cause Addison's disease. Other causes are Tb, hemorrhage (following surgery or severe infection), tumors. Or it can be secondary to pituitary problems. ...Read more
Nothing: The adrenal medulla produces cathecolamines which are stress hormones stimulated by the automated nervous system under control of the hypothalamus which is the unconscious part of the brain. During dialysis if your blood pressure falls receptors in your circulation will signal the adrenal medulla to secrete these hormones which cause the heart to speed up and arteries to constrict. ...Read more
Suppresses it: Taking the hormone that is normally produced by the adrenal cortex means that it no longer produces it (negative feedback). If you suddenly stop taking the medication, your body needs several days to weeks to begin to make hormone again. So, if you are taking cortisol you need to taper the dose to make sure you give your glands the chance to being producing again. ...Read more
Prolonged use, yes: Using steroid for a brief period of time of less than a few weeks probably won't have long term effect, but prolonged use will suppress it--it loses the ability to produce the steroid. Thus folks who need to use steroid for an extended of time often need to remain on it. The length of time varies, but using more than 3 wks typically would need a slow wean. Consult doc. Good luck. ...Read more
Causing hypoadrenal: The adrenal cortex makes Hydrocortisone under the influence of acth from the pituitary. Too much cortisone will suppress the pituitary so it will not stimulate the adrenal to produce its own steroid. After taking cortisone in tapering amounts the adrenal will eventually wake up. ...Read more
Yes: The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Adrenaline, (epinephrine, norepinephrine). Flight or Fight response. If your doctor is concerned (condition resulting in an abnormal or increase secretion). They can check hormones via blood and urine tests. The endocrinology doctor will follow this if you have abnormalities. These are not routine screening tests. They are done if there is a clinical indication (sxs) ...Read more
Nothing: Nothing should happen to adrenal medulla.Get a more detailed answer ›
Hi doctors, regarding to zona riticulars in adrenal cortex, how do these nuclei even produce hormons while they are pyknotic, , ? Giant thank,
Sloppy language: I'm glad you're reading closely. When a pathologists says "pyknotic nucleus", that cells is very dead. Some anatomists use the term more loosely for any cell with a preponderance of heterochromatin even if it's alive. We pathologists can't use any other term and wish all anatomists would say "condensed" for such nuclei instead of "pyknotic" -- it's the term other scientists use. ...Read more
No: Hi. No, the adrenal cortex produces cortisol and aldosterone. Testes and ovaries produce estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone (although very different between the two different glands (and genders), of course. In addition, there's a whole fledgling field of brain steroids, some of which are made in the brain, and some of which are derived from adrenal steroids. NOW, we're havin' FUN! ...Read more
No: Hi. No, the pituitary controls the part of the adrenal cortex that makes cortisol, and is a secondary regulator of the part of the cortex that makes aldosterone. Cortisol does have influential effects on the adrenal medulla, so I guess you could say there are some downstream effects from the pituitary. ...Read more
Why take adrenal?: Bovine adrenal cortex will contain a mixture of steroids, especially cortisol. This will suppress your natural adrenal output, and can cause diabetes, osteoporosis, central obesity, and on and on. Google "cushing's syndrome" and "side effects of steroids" to get the picture. Why do this? ...Read more
Can you explain the regulation of adrenal cortex function by the way of the pituitary gland stimulation of the adrena?
Feedforward/feedback: Hi. Hypothalamus important, but to keep it simple, pituitary ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to make cortisol. Cortisol negatively feeds back to suppress pituitary ACTH. If cortisol falls or a big stress is encountered, ACTH goes up and stimulates more cortisol production. The pituitary "sees" the increase in cortisol, and cuts back on ACTH to keep cortisol in appropriate range. Diurnal pattern ...Read more
Yes: Hi. Yes, the adrenal medulla is the hormonal arm of the sympathetic nervous system (it is a component of the sympathetic nervous system). It helps mediate the "fight or flight" response. ...Read more
I read that a certain amount of cortisol has to be in the adrenal cortex for norepinephrine to be converted to epinephrine. Can anything substitute?
Catecholamines: E and NE are made in the adrenal medulla. In Addison's, where there is no cortisol circulating, there is higher NE and lower E, presumably due to cortisol effects on the adrenal medulla production of catecholamines. If you have adrenal insufficiency and are taking your hydrocortisone, this should not be an issue. ...Read more
Saw ob yest he did vaginal exam-didnt discuss acne cysts-seeing here a doctor says I may have cancer of the adrenal cortex. Still a possible diagnose?
See an Endocrinologi: It is not difficult to make a diagnosis of adrenal cancer if you have sign and symptoms of this condition. All it takes is a ct scan of the abdomen which can/should be done if there is definite suspicion based on steroid excess (cushing;s syndrome like features). But you should first go see an internist or an endocrinologist to help you address this issue. ...Read more
Production of antidiuretic (adh), thyroxine and t3, (liothyronine) parathyroid (pth), hormones of the adrenal cortex and the pancreas, can you tell me about this?
Complex: Please ask a specific question. This is way too complex and vague to answer. If you want to know about all these hormones, consider an Endocrinology fellowship at a major teaching hospital. Of course, before that, you will need a BS, an MD, and a 3 yr Internal Medicine residency. ...Read more
Motor cortex: ALL motor activity - not just smiling - is mediated by the motor cortex. The primary motor cortex is Brodmann area 4 in the precentral gyrus. There are 2 kinds of smile: voluntary (cortically mediated) & emotional (mediated by the thalamus). The brain is way, way, WAY more complex than just "action of smiling" vs " (not emotions)." That's a massive oversimplification. ...Read more
How can I speed up or enhance the development the prefrontal cortex and all other areas of the brain?
Please clarify: Please repost your question with an explanation of how and why you consider your prefrontal cortex and all other areas of your brain to be undeveloped and to need speeded-up or enhanced development. You haven't fallen for that claptrap that we only use 10% of our brains, have you? That's so ridiculous. We all use all of our brain, all of the time. ...Read more
Anatomy = function: The different brain regions control different functions. At the same time, they are interconnected. A brainstem lesion can cause any number of cranial neuropathies, impaired breathing, and in some cases, death. Cortical lesions can affect muscle strength, personality, language, etc. See a neurologist for further discussion. Http://www. Webmd. Com/brain/picture-of-the-brain ...Read more