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Doctor insights on: Tularemia Dna

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How can rickettsia prowazeckii (epidemic typhus) reproduce?

How can rickettsia prowazeckii (epidemic typhus) reproduce?

Epidemic Typhus: Rickettsia prowazekii only replicate within host cells. ...Read more

Dna (Definition)

Dna are the coding molecules found in all living things on earth which contain the instructions on how to build living things. Its is comprised the nucleotide molecules which are ...Read more


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What are the symptoms of tularemia?

Tularemia: The signs ; symptoms of tularemia depend on which form it is (ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal or pneumonic). Please check this great site: http://www.Cdc.Gov/tularemia/signssymptoms/. ...Read more

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Human immunodeficiency virus--can it mutate?

Human immunodeficiency virus--can it mutate?

Yes: Hiv mutates in response to HIV therapy. If you're being treated without a complete response (partial suppression), the virus can mutate so it can replicate in the presence of the drugs. This usually happens in people who don't take their medications properly. They can then transmit the mutant virus to others. Spontaneous mutation (mutation independent of therapy) has not been a big problem. ...Read more

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How does azt (zidovudine) prevent replication of DNA from hiv?

How does azt (zidovudine) prevent replication of DNA from hiv?

Zidovudine (AZT): Is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. It prevents this viral coded enzyme from producing a dna intermediate from the viral RNA genome. ...Read more

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Whats borrelia bugdorferi?

Whats borrelia bugdorferi?

Bacteria causes Lyme: Borrelia burgdorferi is the bacteria that is the causative agent of lyme disease. It has the most complex genome of any bacteria known to man, which contributes to its ability to infect any organ and to mask itself from the immune system and develop resistance to antibiotics. It is most commonly transmitted by ticks but may be transmitted by other biting/stinging insects, sexually & congenitally. ...Read more

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Can west nile virus infect by unborn child?

Can west nile virus infect by unborn child?

West Nile virus: There have been reports of possible transmission of the virus from mother to child during pregnancy or breast feeding, but these have been rare and not confirmed conclusively. ...Read more

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Monotest (target values <1.0=negativ). Values: EBV VCA IgG-Ak 39.9; EBV VCA IgM-Ak 1.1; EBNA-1 IgG-Ak 14.7; EBV DNA (PCR) negativ. What does it mean?

Monotest (target values <1.0=negativ). Values: EBV VCA IgG-Ak 39.9; EBV VCA IgM-Ak 1.1; EBNA-1 IgG-Ak 14.7; EBV DNA (PCR) negativ. What does it mean?

Ask who ordered: The test, but in general, they were suspecting EBV infection/Infectious mononucleosis, which looks negative, the final diagnosis is with the doctor who ordered the blood test. Clinical picture is important, finally we treat patients not lab results, good luck ...Read more

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Is ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum linked to hiv.

Is ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum linked to hiv.

No link: Ureaplasma parvum and most strains of U urealyticum are normal genital tract bacteria, present in the vagina or male urinary tract in at least 50% of healthy persons. UU sometimes causes nongonococcal/nonspecific urethritis in men (NGU, NSU), but no health problems in women are known. There is no link with HIV. Your nearest NHS GUM clinic is an excellent source for additional information. ...Read more

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Can humans catch west nile encephalitis?

Can humans catch west nile encephalitis?

Mosquito bites: West nile virus must be produced in high numbers before being passed through mosquitoes. Birds are far and away the most frequent carriers. Robins look like they might be responsible for spread all over the country. Mosquitoes have to feed on the infected robin and then pass the virus on to human beings through a bite. ...Read more

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How did human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) evolve?

Evolution: It came from a simian precursor transmitted to humans by one of several mechanisms. This virus mutates continuously and the form to which it mutates which is best capable of surviving under the circumstances is the one which will be reproduced and multiply within infected cells. Unless of course you are a creationist. ...Read more

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Does HIV DNA PCR have different assays for the strains of hiv1 and hiv2?

Does HIV DNA PCR have different assays for the strains of hiv1 and hiv2?

Yes, but complicated: Trying to tell whether a person has HIV-1, HIV-2, or both, can get complicated. If a person has high risk exposures or has symptoms, he can see an HIV Infectious Disease doctor and trust the advice, but follow-up as instructed. There are many different tests (usually by various manufacturers) in different parts of the world, which happen to have different prevalences for various HIV strains. ...Read more

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How are humans infected by west nile virus?

How are humans infected by west nile virus?

Mosquito bite: West Nile Virus is a mosquito borne infection that originated in the tropics. It causes a flu-like syndrome in 20% of those infected . It causes neuroinvasive disease in ...Read more

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Is human t cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus (htlv-1) contagious?

Is human t cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus (htlv-1) contagious?

Yes: Both htlv-1 and htlv-2 are spread by sexual transmission, from mother to child, and by exposure to infective blood through transfusions and injection drug use. In this respect the virus is contagious. It does not appear it is transmitted in any other way. ...Read more

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Do all ticks carry borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease?

Do all ticks carry borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease?

No: The total population of ticks in any grassy, wodded area could be in the millions. Several published studies on tick populations have shown 25-30% of the ticks were carrying lyme in an endemic area (an area where lyme disease is present). ...Read more

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Is hiv-1-pcr quantitative and HIV RNA PCR quantitative same tests?can DNA PCR test be quantitative?

HIV testing: Yes. Viral testing can be qualitative or quantitative. Most HIV RNA testing is quantitative. ...Read more

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How is DNA mutated by carcinogens ?

How is DNA mutated by carcinogens ?

DNA breakdown: Carcinogens can cause cells to rapidly divide in response to the continual attack on their survival. With this high cell turnover coves oxidative/free radical damage (stealing of electrons) and in many case errors in dna sequencing resulted in a mutated dna stand. The body sees this imperfect dna strand as a foreign invader and eliminates it through the immune system. ...Read more

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Can you detect spirochete infections(leptospirosis, borreliosis, syphilis) via blood culture tests? If not, why?

Can you detect spirochete infections(leptospirosis, borreliosis, syphilis) via blood culture tests?  If not, why?

Spirochaetes: These organisms are exceptionally difficult, if not impossible, to grow in artificial media. They can be diagnosed by special stains, serologically by antibody formation, and in some instances by detection of antigens by nuclear protein detection. ...Read more

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Hepatitis b antibody.Standard 5 item HBV test, only HBV surface antibody present. How immune is this to a partner of HBV carrier status through sex?

Hepatitis b antibody.Standard 5 item HBV test, only HBV surface antibody present. How immune is this to a partner of HBV carrier status through sex?

Foolish: If someone is actively and acutely infected with hep b, even the idea of considering unprotected sexual intercourse is ridiculous. Just because immunization status shows immunity to hep b, this is not a 100% guarantee and there are still risks. ...Read more

Dr. Harrison Lin
55 doctors shared insights

Tularemia (Definition)

Tularemia = Rabbit fever = infectious bacterial disease caused by Francisella tularensis, which can be found in rodents & ...Read more